Nepalese craftsman, Chandra Bahadur Dangi, holds the record as the world's shortest adult, at 54.6 cm (1 ft 9 ½ inches). The tallest human is Sultan Kösen, a Turkish farmer, almost five times taller at 2.52 meters (8 feet 3 ¼ inches). In nature, size differences among males of a single species are not uncommon, but in a new paper, a team from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), The
Earlier this week, I delivered a simple message: There is a virus here. It kills people. The only way you can prevent it is to get vaccinated, wear masks, and do social distancing. Some people are complaining, “Well, my freedom is being kind of disturbed here.” Well, I told them, “Screw your freedom.” You have the freedom to wear no mask. But if you exercise that freedom, you’re a schmuck—because
Australian Medical Association says NSW health system ‘can no longer manage’ after record Delta case numbers When Covid came to the anti-vax capital of Australia The missing 10 days: did NSW squander the chance to head off its Delta nightmare? Hotspots: NSW and ACT ; Vic ; Qld Restrictions: NSW ; Vic ; Qld ; borders New South Wales has been forced into a snap statewide lockdown after enduring its
Quantum engineers from UNSW Sydney have removed a major obstacle that has stood in the way of quantum computers becoming a reality. They discovered a new technique they say will be capable of controlling millions of spin qubits—the basic units of information in a silicon quantum processor.
In order to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050, farmers need to grow 50% more food on a limited amount of arable land. As a result, plant scientists are in a race against time to engineer crops with higher yields by improving photosynthesis.
If humans want to live on Mars for a longer period it will be necessary to grow their own crops over there. And what is more logical than growing the crops in a greenhouse on the surface, profiting from the sunlight, as seen in many scientific designs and Sci-fi movies? However, will this be possible giving the high amount of cosmic radiation at the Martian surface level? Wageningen University & R
The global combined land and ocean-surface temperature was 1.67 degrees Fahrenheit above the 20th-century average, according to NOAA, the hottest in 142 years of record-keeping. (Image credit: Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP via Getty Images)
Researchers looked at the impact of free masks, text reminders and celebrity endorsements. It's unclear if the best strategies will help counter anti-mask sentiment in the U.S. during the delta surge. (Image credit: Ian Morton/NPR)
Entomologists confirm the report of the world's largest hornet — a worrisome invasive species that originates from East Asia and Japan — by a person in a rural area near the Canadian border. (Image credit: Karen Ducey/Getty Images)
Russia is furious at what it says is unfair criticism of its space program. The country’s latest addition to the International Space Station, the long-awaited Nauka module, docked with the outpost late last month. But its thrusters fired unexpectedly during docking procedures, causing the entire ISS to spin one-and-a-half revolutions . The international community wasn’t impressed, and levied cons
People with weakened immune systems who already got two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines can now get a third shot. But exactly who is eligible? Here's what we know so far. (Image credit: Christiana Botic/Boston Globe via Getty Images)
Oregon State University biologist Francis Chan’s scientific career began when he was a postdoctoral researcher preparing for his first research cruise off the coast of Oregon and he got a call that sent him on an entirely different journey. Fishers had started to report strange occurrences nearby. They were pulling up pot after pot of dead crabs, and an octopus climbed up the fishers’ ropes to es
Going Higher NASA’s Mars helicopter Ingenuity embarked on its 11th flight on the Red Planet’s surface on August 4, flying to record heights. The four-pound rotorcraft’s latest excursion demonstrates that it’s aced its recent transition from a mere technological demonstration to a fully fledged scientific endeavor — and, while it was at it, it snapped an absolutely gorgeous photo. Where’s Percy Du
The next front in the culture wars is climate change, and the battle lines have already been drawn. On one side are the climate skeptics—those who see global warming as nothing more than unusual weather, and argue that government interventions and regulations to curb greenhouse-gas emissions are alarmist or “eco-fascist.” On the other side is Greta Thunberg. This, at least, is what the populist r
Monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat people with mild to moderate COVID-19, but the treatment doesn't work for those who've already developed more severe symptoms or are hospitalized. (Image credit: CHANDAN KHANNA/AFP via Getty Images)
To accept the facts about climate science without changing the way we live is also to deny reality It’s easy to laugh at the anti-vaccine movement, and this week they made it easier still. Hundreds of protesters tried to storm Television Centre in west London, apparently unaware that they were not at the headquarters of the BBC or its news operation – which they blame for brainwashing the British
Scientists who warned of heat waves and rising seas this week also say that it's possible to avoid the worst effects of the warming climate. They're relying on computer models of the world economy. (Image credit: STR/AFP via Getty Images)
Fears for Indigenous communities in western NSW after cases reported in Dubbo and Walgett When Covid came to the anti-vax capital of Australia The missing 10 days: did NSW squander the chance to head off its Delta nightmare? Hotspots: NSW and ACT ; Vic ; Qld Restrictions: NSW ; Vic ; Qld ; borders 11.53pm BST From the great Amy Remeikis , who is also proposing the annexation of Duranbah beach by
Zero-G Greenhouse Russia has big plans in store for its Nauka module, which recently docked with — and then uncontrollably spun — the entire International Space Station. Roscosmos’ orbital lab module will eventually house a sizable greenhouse capable of growing a number of different plants, according to state news agency TASS , an exciting experiment that could have implications for humanity’s de
Female cave lion cub named Sparta in Russia’s Yakutia region may even have traces of mother’s milk in it Scientists have said that an astonishingly well-preserved cave lion cub found in Siberia’s permafrost lived 28,000 years ago and may even have traces of its mother’s milk in it. The female cub, named Sparta, was found at the Semyuelyakh River in Russia’s Yakutia region in 2018 and a second lio
Living and working in the same space has given many couples an unwanted insight into each other’s dirtiest habits. But should we really find them so gross? “Over lockdown, the soundtrack to my life was email notifications pinging – and people burping and farting,” says Emma, describing the unwavering “bodily expulsions” from her husband and their three children as a constant “21-gun salute”. Befo
Fill ‘Er Up An underage driver has been charged with driving while intoxicated after crashing a Tesla Model X into a traffic pole and then a pump at a gas station in west Austin, Texas on Thursday. Fortunately, nobody got hurt, including the driver, who managed to jump out of the vehicle before it burst into flames. The hair-raising incident didn’t ignite the station’s gasoline supply, fortunatel
Australia’s mood has shifted from flight to fight and we’re ready to rumble. But by enlisting compassion, experts say, we can transform that rage into something more positive Shelley didn’t consider herself an angry person. Not until her friend made her a piñata for her second consecutive lockdown birthday. It was fashioned into the shape of the Covid-19 virus and painted fluoro green. She smashe
Oxford Vaccine Group and Gavi say western leaders must not ‘reject their responsibility to the rest of humanity’ We shouldn’t be giving Covid boosters while millions wait for first dose See all our coronavirus coverage Many more people around the world will die of Covid if western political leaders “reject their responsibility to the rest of humanity” by prioritising booster shots for their own p
This is the latest installment in a series that began back in 2019, with an article I did for the print magazine on Americans’ long-standing obsession with the decline-and-fall narrative of Rome. Many people wrote in to agree, disagree, or otherwise react. The online discussion begins here . But the most sustained line of response has been from my friend Eric Schnurer, a writer and long-time advi
In a new groundbreaking work, researchers from DTU have now realized the complete platform for an optical quantum computer. The platform is universal and scalable, it all takes place at room temperature, and the technology is directly compatible with standard fiber optic networks. This puts DTU right at the forefront of the development.
Until relatively recently, lethal infectious diseases stalked the lives of Australian children – including my father, Tom Keneally. Vaccines have saved millions It’s 1940, and a five-year-old boy lies in an oxygen tent. He struggles for breath and hallucinates that his leaden toy soldiers are alive and marching around the room, monstering him with their bayonets. He has diphtheria, a disease also
Sex Bot Regulation As the technology behind sex dolls rapidly advances, legal experts are beginning to wonder how exactly they should be regulated — if at all\. Madi McCarthy, associate lawyer at LK, and Tania Leiman, an associate professor and dean of law at Finders University in Adelaide, Australia, penned an article in The Bulletin: The Law Society of SA Journal analyzing how the country’s gov
Defying Physics Elon Musk tweeted some very casual shade against fellow billionaire Jeff Bezos on Friday. “No amount of money can defy physics,” Musk tweeted in response to another post about Germany’s plan to invest $10 billion in hydrogen projects. He followed that up with another tweet that said, “As Jeffrey Besos [sic] is amply demonstrating.” Tesla Roaster As with so many of the Tesla CEO’s
For years, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have engineered metasurfaces to manipulate light based on its polarization state. That research has contributed to advances in polarization technology—but metasurface technology has proven more powerful than even the researchers themselves realized.
Social media platforms like Twitter amplify expressions of moral outrage over time because users learn such language gets rewarded with an increased number of "likes" and "shares," a new Yale University study shows.
My top 3 impressions up-front: The sea level projections for the year 2100 have been adjusted upwards again. The IPCC has introduced a new high-end risk scenario, stating that a global rise “approaching 2 m by 2100 and 5 m by 2150 under a very high greenhouse gas emissions scenario cannot be ruled out due to deep uncertainty in ice sheet processes.” The IPCC gives more consideration to the large
The proper attire for an outdoor adventure matters, and perhaps no dress code counts more than what you wear to the surface of the moon . A spacesuit must be carefully sewn and assembled. The gold-coated helmet should shield your eyes from the sun’s unfiltered glare. The fabrics closest to the body should be laced with tubes of chilled water to keep you cool. The more exterior layers should keep
Protein-coding genes carry the blueprint for protein production. In higher organisms, however, most of the coding-gene transcripts, or pre-mRNAs, are separated by non-coding sequences called "introns," which must be cut out or "spliced" to make mature mRNA that can be translated into protein.
A new study has found that wildfires have exacerbated COVID-19 deaths and infections. Harvard researchers have discovered a connection between exposure to wildfire smoke with roughly 20,000 infections and 750 deaths due to COVID-19, according to The New York Times . The researchers looked at exposure between March and December 2020, and discovered that smoke from both wildfires and cigarettes und
Ruby Rossi, the titular “child of deaf adults” in Sian Heder’s new film, CODA , lives a bifurcated life. Early in the morning, she works on her family’s fishing boat, sorting fresh-caught haddock from the boots that get stuck in their net and, as the only hearing member of the Rossis, helping translate sign language to vendors onshore. Then she goes to school, often so tired that she’ll fall asle
Treating corals with a probiotic cocktail of beneficial bacteria increases survival after a bleaching event, according to new research. This approach could be administered in advance of a predicted heat wave to help corals recover from high sea temperatures.
Getting a full understanding of how genes are regulated is a major goal of scientists worldwide. Now, a Florida State University professor and his research partners have developed a technique that can map out nearly all of the likely regulatory switches across a genome.
Scientists have repurposed the genetic modification technology CRISPR to identify antibodies in patient blood samples in a move that could inspire a new class of medical diagnostics in addition to a host of other applications.
The reasonable person is a so-called legal fiction that refers to "an ordinary person who exercises care while avoiding extremes of boldness and carefulness." A new study explored how fMRI might be used to minimize subjectivity and bias in trademark law. Trademark law is uniquely suited for neuroimaging because it often involves questions over visual similarity, which is relatively easy to measur
Enhance your pooch’s wellbeing and your own by making daily walks an interactive, quality experience Pepper meets Mr Binks for the first time and bottom-sniffs the diminutive pooch by way of greeting. As ever, I look away. But Mr Binks’s owner, dog behaviourist Anna Webb, says: “Ah, that’s nice, they’re introducing themselves.” Pepper, my miniature schnauzer, trots off ahead down the pavement, fol
Some proteins in cells can separate into small droplets like oil droplets in water, but faults in this process may underlie neurodegenerative diseases in the brains of older people. Now, Rutgers researchers have developed a new method to quantify protein droplets involved in these diseases.
The metaverse is a network of always-on virtual environments in which many people can interact with one another and digital objects while operating virtual representations – or avatars – of themselves. Think of a combination of immersive virtual reality , a massively multiplayer online role-playing game and the web. The metaverse is a concept from science fiction that many people in the technolog
Crushing Energy Drinks Admiral Charles “Chas” Richard, 11th commander of the United States Strategic Command (STRATCOM) — the military’s centralized command in control of the country’s nuclear weapons — revealed that he crushed “a couple of Monster [energy drinks] this morning” at a briefing, as quoted by Breaking Defense editor-in-chief Aaron Mehta . It’s a rather odd admission given the fact th
After years trying for a child without success, I sought solace in online message boards. Before long, I was spending hours a day poring over intimate posts, sharing everything with total strangers. Would it help? Leanne was having her fringe cut when she was offered fertility drugs. It was leftover stock from her hairdresser’s treatment and she was giving it to Leanne for free on condition that
It appears unlikely, but we should try to get as close as possible The Office for National Statistics Covid infection survey estimates that, either through vaccination or infection, an extraordinary 94% of adults now have antibodies to Sars-CoV-2. So why are cases increasing and why does vaccine star Prof Sir Andrew Pollard say herd immunity for Covid-19 is “ mythical ”? Continue reading…
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Adam Maida / The Atlantic A cloud of unease has descended over America’s pandemic summer, arriving with an inescapable sense of déjà vu. Is it happening all over again? Or, maybe more to the point
While some types of RNA viruses cloak themselves to hide inside a cell and create copies of themselves, a "detective enzyme" might be attuned to their whereabouts. A slight variation in their genomic code gives some people's cells the capacity to produce this sensor.
A look at Britain’s booster vaccine programme and whether the science supports an autumn rollout Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Plans for a UK Covid vaccine booster programme this autumn have caused controversy: proponents say it will help save lives and maintain freedoms , but others argue it is more important to send jabs abroad to countries where many have yet to
Despite our attempts to be unbiased, people often judge others based on looks alone. In the courtroom, physically attractive defendants often get lighter sentences than others. We unconsciously assume that attractive people are as great as they look. Try as we might, humans often struggle to be the rational, unbiased creatures that we aspire to be. We routinely fall victim to cognitive biases, sy
Thousands of COVID-19 cases and deaths in California, Oregon, and Washington between March and December 2020 may be attributable to increases in fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) from wildfire smoke, according to a new study.
Most children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) don't outgrow the disorder, as widely thought. It manifests itself in adulthood in different ways and waxes and wanes over a lifetime, according to a new study.
Shares in space tourism firm worth $300m will support Virgin Atlantic and other businesses hit by Covid-19 Richard Branson has sold a further $300m (£220m) stake in Virgin Galactic to raise more funds to prop up his airline, Virgin Atlantic, and other businesses hit hard by the pandemic. It is the third time Sir Branson, 71, has sold a large tranche of shares in in his space tourism company since
Disturbing and Disruptive Wondering why your hot vax summer was the wrong kind of hot? It’s not just you. In fact, July was the hottest month in recorded history. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said on Friday that July 2021 was “Earth’s hottest month in 142 years,” according to The Washington Post . The land and ocean-surface temperature for the month hit 1.67 degrees
One Rocket, A Dozen Missions Elon Musk said that SpaceX’s Starship rocket can travel to Mars roughly a dozen times. The Tesla CEO boasted about the super heavy launch vehicle’s reusability via tweet on Saturday, saying that it’ll help drive more cost-effective missions to the Moon as well as the martian surface. “Starship will be crushingly cost-effective for Earth orbit or moon missions as soon
This article was originally published by our sister site, Freethink. Ever since my fifth-grade class buried a jar of notes in the playground, time capsules have captured my imagination. We intended to unearth it when we graduated high school, but that never happened, and the note I wrote on that pink index card remains a mystery, even to me. NASA has also been fascinated by time and the future. I
Before we present this week’s Weekend Reads, a question: Do you enjoy our weekly roundup? If so, we could really use your help. Would you consider a tax-deductible donation to support Weekend Reads, and our daily work? Thanks in advance. The week at Retraction Watch featured: Researcher in Japan suspended, demoted for plagiarism Critics face legal … Continue reading
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. NurPhoto / Getty This week, a damning climate-change report from the United Nations warned of Earth’s catastrophic warming . Temperatures soared in tandem, as if to illustrate the point: Europe ex
ROBOTICS CyberDog Is a New Ominous-Looking Robot From Xiaomi James Vincent | The Verge “Looking at pictures of CyberDog…it’s clear Xiaomi isn’t pitching the machine as a rival to Aibo, Sony’s own robot canine. While Aibo is small and cute, CyberDog is sleek and futuristic—even a little menacing. …Xiaomi says CyberDog is nimble enough to perform backflips, has a maximum payload of 3kg, and can tro
Stream Homestead Rescue on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/homestead-rescue About Homestead Rescue: Marty, Matt and Misty Raney use their building, farming and hunting expertise to help people who strive to live off the grid. #HomesteadRescue #Discovery #Treehouse Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@Discovery We're
Python is the one of the core languages of modern programming . Its power and flexibility allow for some truly amazing feats with data that allow computers to understand natural language, pull patterns from huge amounts of data, and much more. The Premium Python Programming Certification Bundle will help you develop the skills you need to grapple with Python, and give your career the boost it nee
The U.S. Forest Service said Friday it's operating in crisis mode, fully deploying firefighters and maxing out its support system as wildfires continue to break out across the U.S. West, threatening thousands of homes and entire towns.
Today, human sources are responsible for 60% of global methane emissions, coming primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, decomposition in landfills and the agriculture sector. Nearly a quarter of methane emissions can be attributed to agriculture, much of which is from raising livestock. Rice cultivation and food waste are also important sources of agricultural methane, as nearly a third of al
ACT records one new case, with the territory in lockdown until at least Thursday NSW Covid update: entire state in lockdown as premier warns ‘this is literally a war’ When Covid came to the anti-vax capital of Australia The missing 10 days: did NSW squander the chance to head off its Delta nightmare? Hotspots: NSW and ACT ; Vic ; Qld Restrictions: NSW ; Vic ; Qld ; borders Victoria has recorded 2
Researchers have identified a previously unknown genetic program in the fruit fly. The genetic material involved controls the development of the neurons while also protecting them from degeneration. They have hardly changed in the course of evolution over hundreds of millions of years and also exist in a comparable form in humans. Initial data show that they presumably perform similar tasks there.
While the internet has by and large been a force for good for most of us, it’s also made the data we generate more vulnerable to both criminals and snoops that track where you go and what you do online . A virtual private network, or VPN, keeps them both out and right now, you can save 20% on an already discounted one-year subscription to NordVPN , one of the top-rated VPNs on the market with cod
Some types of RNA viruses cloak themselves to hide inside a cell and create copies of themselves. But an enzyme that acts as a virus sensor might be attuned to their whereabouts. A slight variation in their genomic code gives some people's cells the capacity to produce this sensor. Researchers discovered how this sensor helps cells stop the virus before it multiplies too greatly.
Researchers took a middling monomer and, by using a special catalyst, they created a tougher polymer that can form long chains. The polymer can then be easily depolymerized back to the monomer state with an acid catalyst, resulting in a chemically recyclable thermoplastic that competes with the most popular plastics, polyethylene and polypropylene.
Researchers have characterized how the essential mRNA poly(A) tails are synthesized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study reveals several mechanisms controlling poly(A) tail lengths and hereby ensuring the robustness of gene expression.
Robots that need to use their arms to make their way across treacherous terrain just got a speed upgrade with a new path planning approach. The improved algorithm path planning algorithm found successful paths three times as often as standard algorithms, while needing much less processing time.
Getting a full understanding of how genes are regulated is a major goal of scientists worldwide. Now, researchers have developed a technique that can map out nearly all of the likely regulatory switches across a genome.
A high-fat diet disrupts the biology of the gut's inner lining and its microbial communities — and promotes the production of a metabolite that may contribute to heart disease, according to a new study.
We often say that a substrate fits into its enzyme like a key in a lock, but this metaphor is imperfect. Substrate binding can also change the lock (the structure of the enzyme) to induce a perfect fit. An international team of researchers has now introduced a non-biological, crystalline material that demonstrates induced-fit binding behavior when it highly selectively takes up acetylene into its
A low-cost and rapid 3D technique is helping scientists to gain insight into the colony- and community-level dynamics of the poorly understood stony coral tissue loss disease responsible for widespread coral death throughout the Tropical Western Atlantic. They adapted Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to generate 3D models for tracking lesion progression and impacts on diseased coral colo
A new publication highlights recent breakthrough therapies developed to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The goal of the study is to provide views on how basic science advances will impact clinical research areas to help influence how NSCLC will be managed over the coming decade.
A research team has uncovered the role of a gene that is critical to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells during the early development of the pancreas. Experiments with mouse models revealed that inhibiting the gene at the early embryonic stage doubles the number of insulin-producing cells, with cells maintained into adulthood and all mice showing normal weight. The findings could bolste
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft onboard is seen as it is rollout out of the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad at Space Launch Complex 41 ahead of the Orbital Flight Test mission, Wednesday, Dec. 18, 2019 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Orbital Flight Test with be Starliner’s maiden mission to the International Sp
A new study exposes the dire need for new clinical risk management tools to help hospital healthcare workers prevent the deaths and intensive care admissions of Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) COVID-19 patients with pneumonia, say researchers.
Researchers are analyzing new materials for electrical insulation, or packaging, that can remove heat more effectively compared to today's insulation, amid a need to redesign our electrical infrastructure for the next 100 years and beyond to match advanced technology.
The expression of several hippocampal genes implicated in learning and memory processes requires that Ca2+ signals generated in dendritic spines, dendrites, or the soma in response to neuronal stimulation reach the nucleus. The diffusion of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm is highly restricted, so neurons must use other mechanisms to propagate…
Astrocytes have emerged as a potential source for new neurons in the adult mammalian brain. In mice, adult striatal neurogenesis can be stimulated by local damage, which recruits striatal astrocytes into a neurogenic program by suppression of active Notch signaling (J. P. Magnusson et al., Science 346, 237–241 ). Here,…
To identify regulators of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), gene expression profiles of malignant parts of TNBC (mTNBC) and normal adjacent (nadj) parts of the same breasts have been compared. We are interested in the roles of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) as drivers of TNBC….
The xylem in plants is specialized to transport water, mechanically support the plant body, and store water and carbohydrates. Balancing these functions leads to trade-offs that are linked to xylem structure. We proposed a multivariate hypothesis regarding the main xylem functions and tested it using structural equation modeling. We sampled…
Emergent electromagnetic induction based on electrodynamics of noncollinear spin states may enable dramatic miniaturization of inductor elements widely used in electric circuits, yet the research is still in its infancy and many issues must be resolved toward its application. One such problem is how to increase working temperature to room…
Four-wave mixing (FWM) of optical fields has been extensively used in quantum information processing, sensing, and memories. It also forms a basis for nonlinear spectroscopies such as transient grating, stimulated Raman, and photon echo where phase matching is used to select desired components of the third-order response of matter. Here…
Lipid-coated noble metal nanoparticles (L-NPs) combine the biomimetic surface properties of a self-assembled lipid membrane with the plasmonic properties of a nanoparticle (NP) core. In this work, we investigate derivatives of cholesterol, which can be found in high concentrations in biological membranes, and other terpenoids, as tunable, synthetic platforms to…
Attention alters perception across the visual field. Typically, endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (involuntary) attention similarly improve performance in many visual tasks, but they have differential effects in some tasks. Extant models of visual attention assume that the effects of these two types of attention are identical and consequently do not…
Self-assembly of microscopic building blocks into highly ordered and functional structures is ubiquitous in nature and found at all length scales. Hierarchical structures formed by colloidal building blocks are typically assembled from monodisperse particles interacting via engineered directional interactions. Here, we show that polydisperse colloidal bananas self-assemble into a complex…
Algae are key contributors to global carbon fixation and form the basis of many food webs. In nature, their growth is often supported or suppressed by microorganisms. The bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 arrests the growth of the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, deflagellates the alga by the cyclic lipopeptide orfamide…
Recently discovered simple quantitative relations, known as bacterial growth laws, hint at the existence of simple underlying principles at the heart of bacterial growth. In this work, we provide a unifying picture of how these known relations, as well as relations that we derive, stem from a universal autocatalytic network…
The system of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)–mediated transcriptional interference that represses fission yeast phosphate homoeostasis gene pho1 provides a sensitive readout of genetic influences on cotranscriptional 3′-processing and termination and a tool for discovery of regulators of this phase of the Pol2 transcription cycle. Here, we conducted a genetic screen…
Meiotic recombination plays dual roles in the evolution and stable inheritance of genomes: Recombination promotes genetic diversity by reassorting variants, and it establishes temporary connections between pairs of homologous chromosomes that ensure their future segregation. Meiotic recombination is initiated by generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) by the conserved topoisomerase-like…
As they develop, many plants deploy shifts in antiherbivore defense allocation due to changing costs and benefits of their defensive traits. Plant defenses are known to be primed or directly induced by herbivore damage within generations and across generations by long-lasting epigenetic mechanisms. However, little is known about the differences…
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are lipid-associated luminal secretory cargoes selectively sorted to the apical surface of the epithelia where they reside and play diverse vital functions. Cholesterol-dependent clustering of GPI-APs in the Golgi is the key step driving their apical sorting and their further plasma membrane organization and activity; however, the…
Religious persecution is common in many countries around the globe. There is little evidence on its long-term effects. We collect data from all across Spain, using information from more than 67,000 trials held by the Spanish Inquisition between 1480 and 1820. This comprehensive database allows us to demonstrate that municipalities…
Climate change is expected to pose a global threat to forest health by intensifying extreme events like drought and insect attacks. Carbon allocation is a fundamental process that determines the adaptive responses of long-lived late-maturing organisms like trees to such stresses. However, our mechanistic understanding of how trees coordinate and…
The long-range order of noncoplanar magnetic textures with scalar spin chirality (SSC) can couple to conduction electrons to produce an additional (termed geometrical or topological) Hall effect. One such example is the Hall effect in the skyrmion lattice state with quantized SSC. An alternative route to attain a finite SSC…
Cellular function depends on the correct folding of proteins inside the cell. Heat-shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s), being among the first molecular chaperones binding to nascently translated proteins, aid in protein folding and transport. They undergo large, coordinated intra- and interdomain structural rearrangements mediated by allosteric interactions. Here, we applied a…
Hemes are common elements of biological redox cofactor chains involved in rapid electron transfer. While the redox properties of hemes and the stability of the spin state are recognized as key determinants of their function, understanding the molecular basis of control of these properties is challenging. Here, benefiting from the…
Efficient and effective generation of high-acceleration movement in biology requires a process to control energy flow and amplify mechanical power from power density–limited muscle. Until recently, this ability was exclusive to ultrafast, small organisms, and this process was largely ascribed to the high mechanical power density of small elastic recoil…
The position of the axon initial segment (AIS) is thought to play a critical role in neuronal excitability. Previous experimental studies have found that a distal shift in AIS position correlates with a reduction in excitability. Yet theoretical work has suggested the opposite, because of increased electrical isolation. A distal…
Race and address may increase risk for diabetes-related amputation, according to a new study. The findings show that diabetes-related toe and foot amputations are higher in rural and Western American residents, Native Americans, and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. The researchers explored the racial/ethnic and geographic trends in major and minor lower extremity amputations (LEA) in Americ
Fire plays a dominant role in deforestation, particularly in the tropics, but the relative extent of transformations and influence of fire frequency on eventual forest loss remain unclear. Here, we analyze the frequency of fire and its influence on postfire forest trajectories between 2001 and 2018. We account for ~1.1% of Latin American forests burnt in 2002–2003 (8,465,850 ha). Although 40.1% o
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) results from the capacity of several human cancers to metastasize to the pleural cavity. No effective treatments are currently available, reflecting our insufficient understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to MPE progression. Here, we found that efferocytosis through the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK led to the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10)
Moral outrage shapes fundamental aspects of social life and is now widespread in online social networks. Here, we show how social learning processes amplify online moral outrage expressions over time. In two preregistered observational studies on Twitter (7331 users and 12.7 million total tweets) and two preregistered behavioral experiments ( N = 240), we find that positive social feedback for ou
Oxalate-rich mineral accretions, often found in rock shelters around the world, offer important opportunities for radiocarbon dating of associated rock art. Here, sample characterization and chemical pretreatment techniques are used to characterize the accretions, prescreen for evidence of open-system behavior, and address potential contamination. The results provide stratigraphically consistent
Beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMCs) ameliorate environmental stress, but whether they can prevent mortality and the underlying host response mechanisms remains elusive. Here, we conducted omics analyses on the coral Mussismilia hispida exposed to bleaching conditions in a long-term mesocosm experiment and inoculated with a selected BMC consortium or a saline solution placebo. All corals w
We propose a new class of computer-generated holograms whose far-fields have designer-specified polarization response. We dub these Jones matrix holograms. We provide a simple procedure for their implementation using form-birefringent metasurfaces. Jones matrix holography generalizes a wide body of past work with a consistent mathematical framework, particularly in the field of metasurfaces, and
Spin-based silicon quantum electronic circuits offer a scalable platform for quantum computation, combining the manufacturability of semiconductor devices with the long coherence times afforded by spins in silicon. Advancing from current few-qubit devices to silicon quantum processors with upward of a million qubits, as required for fault-tolerant operation, presents several unique challenges, on
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytosis pathway for the specific internalization of large compounds, growth factors, and receptors. Formation of internalized vesicles from the flat plasma membrane is accompanied by maturation of cytoplasmic clathrin coats. How clathrin coats mature and the mechanistic role of clathrin coats are still largely unknown. Maturation models propose
The delivery of small particles into porous environments remains highly challenging because of the low permeability to the fluids that carry these colloids. Even more challenging is that the specific location of targets in the porous environment usually is not known and cannot be determined from the outside. Here, we demonstrate a two-step strategy to deliver suspended colloids to targets that ar
In recent years, lanthanum aluminate/strontium titanate (LAO/STO) heterointerfaces have been used to create a growing family of nanoelectronic devices based on nanoscale control of LAO/STO metal-to-insulator transition. The properties of these devices are wide-ranging, but they are restricted by nature of the underlying thick STO substrate. Here, single-crystal freestanding membranes based on LAO
The centrality of the Krebs cycle in metabolism has long been interpreted as evidence of its antiquity, and consequently, questions regarding its provenance, and whether it initially functioned as a cycle or not, have received much attention. The present report shows that prebiotic oxidation of α-hydroxy carboxylates can be achieved by UV photolysis of a simple geochemical species (HS – ), which
While energy-structure-function (ESF) maps are a powerful new tool for in silico materials design, the cost of acquiring an ESF map for many properties is too high for routine integration into high-throughput virtual screening workflows. Here, we propose the next evolution of the ESF map. This uses parallel Bayesian optimization to selectively acquire energy and property data, generating the same
The recruitment of Unc-51-like kinase and TANK-binding kinase 1 complexes is essential for Nuclear dot protein 52-mediated selective autophagy and relies on the specific association of NDP52, RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1, and Nak-associated protein 1 (5-azacytidine-induced protein 2, AZI2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we find that except for the NDP52
The year 2020 brought unimaginable challenges in public health, with the confluence of the COVID-19 pandemic and wildfires across the western United States. Wildfires produce high levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). Recent studies reported that short-term exposure to PM 2.5 is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 cases and deaths. We acquired and linked publicly available daily dat
NASA was flummoxed last week when the Perseverance rover attempted to collect its first rock core sample only to find the sample tube empty. The missing core was nowhere to be found, so the team had to take a step back and assess the situation on Mars. Now, NASA believes it has worked out what happened , and it’s ready to set course for the next sampling location. The Perseverance rover has a sui
Temperatures were expected to soar to triple digits again Friday in Portland, Oregon, and Seattle as a heat wave bakes the Pacific Northwest, and forecasters said hot weather and wildfire smoke would pose a problem through the weekend.
Your metabolism, the rate at which you burn calories, peaks much earlier in life, and starts its inevitable decline later than you might guess, a new study shows. “There are lots of physiological changes that come with growing up and getting older,” says study coauthor Herman Pontzer, associate professor of evolutionary anthropology at Duke University. “Think puberty, menopause, other phases of l
Nature, Published online: 13 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02217-y Researchers warn that plans to prevent the next global outbreak don’t consider the failures that have fuelled our current predicament.
In Lake Michigan, mussels face divers ready to scrape them off rocks, molluscicides pumped underwater capable of tearing apart their digestive systems, another invasive species hungry for their young and any number of death traps researchers dream up next.
People's personality—such as how extroverted or introverted they are—and their gender can be linked to how they interact online, and whether they prefer interacting with a system rather than with other people.
I was mentioning the number of unusual therapeutic modes that are being explored these days, and one of those is (broadly) RNA-based approaches. The ones that directly feed into coding for proteins get a lot of attention (the mRNA vaccines, for example), and everything that’s currently approved is some sort of antisense or siRNA species. But RNA being what it is, there are plenty of other things
The disappearance of rural communities in combination with climate change could make wildfires—like those seen in many Mediterranean countries this summer—more frequent in the future, Cyprus' environment minister said on Friday.
Five years to the month after releasing arguably the best album of the 2010s , the spotlight-shy Frank Ocean has emerged to share something with the world again. Late last week, he cleared his Instagram archive of all old photos—a now-common maneuver for pop stars about to move into a new artistic era—and began touting something called “Homer.” “My hope is to make things that last, that are hard
In a new publication from Opto-Electronic Advances, Researchers led by Professor Jinghua Teng from Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore consider ultra-high extinction-ratio light modulation by electrically tunable metasurfaces.
A recent multi-year outbreak of an invasive moth killed thousands of acres of oak trees across southern New England. But interspersed among the wreckage were thousands of trees that survived. A new study published today in Functional Ecology sheds light on why. Research by scientists from Harvard, UMass Amherst, Boston University, and MIT reveals that a tree's carbohydrate reserves are crucial to
The precise transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next is fundamental to life. Most of the time, this process unfolds with remarkable accuracy, but when it goes awry, mutations can arise—some of them beneficial, some of them inconsequential, and some of them causing malfunction and disease.
New research has revealed that a simple but robust algorithm can help engineers to improve the design of cellular materials that are used in a variety of diverse applications ranging from defense, bio-medical to smart structures and the aerospace sector.
Playing professional football games in empty stadiums had a hugely negative effect on the success of home teams, with home advantage almost halved, according to new research. The study used the unique opportunity presented by the COVID-19 pandemic to test whether home advantage applies when fans are not present in the stands. They found that home teams accrued significantly fewer points and scored
Five years ago, a plane called Solar Impulse 2 flew around the world without using any liquid fuel. As you might guess from the name, the plane was solar-powered. It wasn’t the fastest—it took almost a year and a half to circumnavigate the globe , traveling 26,718 miles and stopping in 17 different cities. But it was a meaningful proof of concept, and a technological feat. Now Solar Impulse 2 has
A new concept for a future brain-computer interface system uses a coordinated network of “neurograins,” independent, wireless microscale sensors, each about the size of a grain of salt, to record and stimulate brain activity. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are emerging assistive devices that may one day help people with brain or spinal injuries to move or communicate. BCI systems depend on impl
Researchers recently reported that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce overdiagnoses and thereby improve prostate cancer screening. Now, the same research group shows that the addition of a novel blood test, the Stockholm3 test, can reduce the number of MRIs performed by a third while further preventing the detection of minor, low-risk tumors.
The latest major report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is forceful in its insistence that humans have warmed the planet, that major environmental changes are now inevitable, and that some of the severe effects of climate change are not just distant projections, but unfolding right now.
In today’s newsletter, you’ll find a selection of books filled with excitement, to read (nor not read) at the beach, or wherever else you prefer to devour hundreds of pages in a single sitting. (You can browse the Culture team’s full summer reading list here.) This week’s newsletter is a rerun. We’ll be back with a fresh newsletter next week. Every Friday in the Books Briefing , we thread toget
A former Harvard researcher has agreed to pay $215,000 to settle allegations that he used bogus data in a grant application to the National Institutes of Health — and the teaching hospital where he worked has already repaid more than $900,000 in grant funds. The settlement, of which we were just made aware, was announced … Continue reading
New research sheds light on a subset of dog coat patterns. The findings raise new questions about long-held tenets of dog evolution. The study findings reveal structural variants that control expression of the agouti signaling protein, or ASIP, gene at two separate locations to produce five distinctive dog color patterns. These different patterns are widespread, occurring in hundreds of dog breed
If you feel like your metabolism just isn't what it used to be, no matter how many hours you spend in the gym, dolphins can relate. A new study finds that bottlenose dolphins burn calories at a lower rate as they get older, just like we do.
Researchers have investigated the extent to which direct capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the ambient air can help to effectively remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The result: With careful planning, for example with regard to location and provision of the necessary energy, CO2 can be removed in a climate-effective manner.
Quantum entanglement is one of the most fundamental and intriguing phenomena in nature. Recent research on entanglement has proven to be a valuable resource for quantum communication and information processing. Now, scientists have discovered a stable quantum entangled state of two protons on a silicon surface, opening doors to an organic union of classical and quantum computing platforms and pote
PARP inhibitors, used to treat patients with cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostate and pancreas, work by inducing persistent DNA gaps in tumor cells with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The discovery offers the potential to monitor tumors for the development of resistance to PARP inhibitor therapy, and to identify drug combinations that could prevent drug resistance and improve the efficacy of cancer
An international research team has retraced the astonishing lifetime journey of an Arctic woolly mammoth, which covered enough of the Alaska landscape during its 28 years to almost circle the Earth twice.
Cabbage butterflies started trying to take over the planet millions of years before humans ever set foot on it, researchers report. Their new study uses statistical methods to trace the path of ancient pierid butterflies as they diversified and their plant hosts fought back over and over again in a battle repeated across evolutionary history. As the butterflies tried to conquer the world, plants
Researchers from University of Melbourne and RMIT University published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that identifies the key challenges experienced by sharing economy consumers and explains how consumers manage to overcome these challenges and cocreate value in the sharing economy.
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and ETH Zurich have investigated the extent to which direct capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the ambient air can help to effectively remove greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere. The result: With careful planning, for example with regard to location and provision of the necessary energy, CO2 can be removed in a climate-effective manner. The resear
PLUS. En ny undersøgelse fra Umeå Universitet har undersøgt, hvordan en palæo-diæt, også kaldet stenalderkost, kan reducere niveauet af triglycerider i blodet hos mennesker med type 2-diabetes. Reduktionen ser ikke ud til at have relation til vægttabet, som kosten også fører til.
In Science Book Talk, a new four-part podcast miniseries, host Deboki Chakravarti acts as literary guide to two science books that share a beautiful and sometimes deeply… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
Stream Pushing the Line on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/pushing-the-line About Pushing the Line: A young crew of daredevils spend their days risking their lives to break records on ropes stretched 500 feet in the air. At night, camp is all about parties, hook ups and break ups. #PushingTheLine #Zipline #Discovery Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow U
Nature, Published online: 13 August 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02211-4 Despite geneticists being warned about spreadsheet problems, 30% of published papers contain mangled gene names in supplementary data.
In comparison to the greenhouse gas emissions from composting untreated waste, composting digestate left after biogas production can cause significantly higher methane emissions to the atmosphere, a new study reveals. To achieve a circular economy, good management of organic waste is crucial. Recycling technologies that allow for minimal greenhouse gas emissions to the environment, along with the
Recent announcements by the B.C. and Ontario governments emphasize that institutions of higher education should plan a familiar return to campuses over the next month. Their recommendations call for a return to normal with an eye on backup plans and transitions.
New research confirms that renowned violin maker Antonio Stradivari and others treated their instruments with various chemicals that produced their unique sound. Researchers have now identified several of those chemicals for the first time. Joseph Nagyvary, professor emeritus of biochemistry at Texas A&M University, first proposed the theory that chemicals used in making the violins—not so much t
Researchers from Utrecht University have visualized the "molecular postman" that makes sure many important proteins can be delivered outside of cells. This has profound implications for our understanding of protein secretion, which in the future can be used for the production of cheaper protein-based therapeutics such as insulin, and for the development of new drugs against Corona-, Dengue-, and Z
BioNyt Videnskabens Verden (www.bionyt.dk) er Danmarks ældste populærvidenskabelige tidsskrift for naturvidenskab. Det er det eneste blad af sin art i Danmark, som er helliget international forskning inden for livsvidenskaberne.
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