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Aging couples connected in sickness and health::: As the world's population of older adults increases, so do conversations around successful aging — including seniors' physical, mental and social well-being. Two major factors can predict an older person's quality of life: the physical health and the cognitive functioning of the person's spouse. ( ).


Alzheimer's culprit causes memory loss even before brain degeneration ::: A brain protein believed to be a key component in the progress of dementia can cause memory loss in healthy brains even before physical signs of degeneration appear, according to new research. ( ).


Altered pain processing in patients with cognitive impairment ::: People with dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment (CI) have altered responses to pain, with many conditions associated with increased pain sensitivity, concludes a new research review.( ).

alz medicin-søvn

Poor sleep linked to toxic buildup of Alzheimer's protein, memory loss ::: Sleep may be a missing piece of the Alzheimer's puzzle. The toxic protein that is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease blocks the deepest stages of sleep, resulting in memory decline, according to new research. ( ).


Using robots, scientists assemble promising antimicrobial compounds ::: There's an urgent demand for new antimicrobial compounds that are effective against constantly emerging drug-resistant bacteria. Two robotic chemical-synthesizing machines at the Molecular Foundry have joined the search. ( ).


New method may eliminate antibiotic use in livestock ::: An animal scientist has developed an antibiotic-free method to protect animals raised for food against common infections. The innovation comes as growing public concern about antibiotic resistance has induced McDonald's, Tyson Foods and other industry giants to announce major cuts in antibiotic use in meat production. About 80 percent of antibiotics in the United States are used by farmers, because they both protect against disease and accelerate weight gain in many farm animals. ( ).

antibiotika i koli

Researchers engineer E. coli to produce new forms of popular antibiotic ::: In Science Advances, University at Buffalo researchers will report that they have managed to turn E. coli into tiny factories for producing new forms of the popular antibiotic erythromycin — including three that were shown in the lab to kill drug-resistant bacteria. ( ).

astro planeter

Circular orbits of small exoplanets: Which Earth-sized exoplanets are potentially habitable? ::: Viewed from above, our solar system's planetary orbits around the sun resemble rings around a bulls-eye. Each planet, including Earth, keeps to a roughly circular path, always maintaining the same distance from the sun. For decades, astronomers have wondered whether the solar system's circular orbits might be a rarity in our universe. Now a new analysis suggests that such orbital regularity is instead the norm, at least for systems with planets as small as Earth.( ).


Bacteria may cause type 2 diabetes ::: Chronic exposure to a toxin made by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria produces the hallmark symptoms of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), including insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in rabbits, new research shows. The findings suggest that eliminating staph bacteria or neutralizing the toxins might have potential for preventing or treating T2D.( ).


Vulnerability found in some drug-resistant bacteria ::: A new study analyzing the physical dynamics of all currently mapped structures in an important group of antibiotic-destroying enzymes has found a common structural feature: the physical coordination of a set of flexible components. The apparently universal nature of this complex structural dynamic implies that it is critical to the antibiotic destroying properties of the enzyme and points to the possibility of finding a way to chemically disable the enzymes and bacterial antibiotic resistance, experts say. ( ).

bakt lyme

Researchers' discovery may explain difficulty in treating Lyme disease ::: The bac­terium that causes Lyme dis­ease forms dor­mant per­sister cells, which are known to evade antibi­otics, researchers have discovered. This sig­nif­i­cant finding, they said, could help explain why it's so dif­fi­cult to treat the infec­tion in some patients.( ).

bakt strep

Scientists discover protein that plays key role in streptococcal infections ::: The effort to identify new ways of fighting infections has taken a step forward now that scientists have identified a key protein involved in the host's response to strep infections, scientists report.( ).

bakt tarm

Contact lens wearers: Eyes may get more infections because their 'microbiomes' have changed ::: Using high-precision genetic tests to differentiate the thousands of bacteria that make up the human microbiome, researchers suggest that they have found a possible — and potentially surprising — root cause of the increased frequency of certain eye infections among contact lens wearers.( ).


New 'designer carbon' boosts battery performance ::: Scientists have created a new carbon material that significantly improves the performance of batteries and supercapacitors.( ).


Trees are source for high-capacity, soft batteries ::: A method for making elastic high-capacity batteries from wood pulp has been developed. Using nanocellulose broken down from tree fibers, scientists have produced an elastic, foam-like battery material that can withstand shock and stress.( ).


Food or fuel? How about both? ::: In the United States, federal mandates to produce more renewable fuels, especially biofuels, have led to a growing debate: Should fuel or food grow on arable land? Recent research found encouraging, sustainable results when growing Camelina sativa with soybean in the Midwest.( ).


New sensing tech could help detect diseases, fraudulent art, chemical weapons ::: Discovered in the 1970s, SERS is a sensing technique prized for its ability to identify chemical and biological molecules in a wide range of fields. It has been commercialized, but not widely. That may soon change. An international research of engineers has developed nanotechnology that promises to make SERS simpler and more affordable.( ).

brystfeed leukæmi

Breastfeeding may lower risk of childhood leukemia, study suggests ::: Breastfeeding for six months or longer was associated with a lower risk of childhood leukemia compared with children who were never breastfed or who were breastfed for a shorter time, according to an article. ( ).


Protein scaffold created by researchers ::: Right before a cell starts to divide to give birth to a daughter cell, its biochemical machinery unwinds the chromosomes and copies the millions of protein sequences comprising the cell's DNA, which is packaged along the length of the each chromosomal strand. These copied sequences also need to be put back together before the two cells are pulled apart. Mistakes can lead to genetic defects or cancerous mutations in future cell generations. Researchers have now charted a protein that scaffolds the chromosome along its length to help perpetuate life. ( ).


Dinosaurs were likely warm-blooded ::: Dinosaurs grew as fast as your average living mammal, according to a new research article. The article is a re-analysis of a widely publicized 2014 Science paper on dinosaur metabolism and growth that concluded dinosaurs were neither ectothermic nor endothermic — terms popularly simplified as 'cold-blooded' and 'warm-blooded' — but instead occupied an intermediate category. ( ).

dino eng

Britain’s oldest sauropod dinosaur identified from fossil bone that fell from a cliff face ::: Experts have identified Britain's oldest sauropod dinosaur from a fossil bone discovered on the Yorkshire coast. The vertebra (backbone) originates from a group of dinosaurs that includes the largest land animals to have ever walked on Earth. This new sauropod dinosaur, from the Middle Jurassic Period at about 176 million years old, was found near Whitby, Yorkshire, after it fell out of a cliff face. This find represents the earliest skeletal record of this type of dinosaur from the United Kingdom and adds to existing evidence from Yorkshire dinosaur tracks that this part of the country was once Britain's very own 'Jurassic World'. ( ).

dna epigenom

Scientists reveal epigenome maps of the human body's major organs ::: While the genome of an individual is the same in every cell, epigenomes vary since they are closely related to the genes a cell is actually using at any given time. A new atlas of human organ epigenomes provides a starting place to understand the role of chemical markers in development, health and disease.( ).

dna epigenom

Ancient DNA sheds light on how past environments affected ancient populations ::: For the first time, a study shows that epigenetic marks on DNA can be detected in a large number of ancient human remains, which may lead to further understanding about the effects of famine and disease in the ancient world. ( ).

drug myelofibrose

Targeted drug can ‘diminish the suffering’ of myelofibrosis ::: Use of the targeted agent pacritinib significantly reduced the symptoms and burden of advanced myelofibrosis in patients, says a researcher who co-led PERSIST-1, the worldwide phase 3 clinical trial that tested the therapy. Specifically, pacritinib substantially reduced severe enlargement of the spleen, a typical feature of advanced myelofibrosis, in more than 20 percent of patients and alleviated debilitating side effects in more than 46 percent. ( ).

drug antikoagulent

Anticoagulant medications: Newer, easier to manage medications may not always be the best choice ::: If you are over age 75, and taking an anticoagulant, the old standard may be the gold standard, Mayo Clinic researchers and collaborators have determined.( ).

drug entolimod

Entolimod may be a promising treatment option for many solid tumors ::: The first clinical study of the anticancer effects of the novel agent entolimod are now available. Findings confirm preclinical evidence that the agent, which is derived from salmonella flagellin, is worthy of further investigation as treatment for some of the most common and most resilient solid-tumor cancers.( ).

drug nivolumab

Nivolumab treatment in melanoma patients has manageable safety profile ::: The monoclonal antibody nivolumab has shown promise as a therapeutic agent, particularly by improving the survival rates of melanoma patients. Medical researchers have presented data from a retrospective analysis of the safety of nivolumab in 4 ongoing phase I-III studies in melanoma patients. ( ).

drug pembrolizumab

Pembrolizumab shows real promise against head and neck cancer, study suggests ::: Immunotherapy with the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab decreased the size of tumors by 30 percent or more in 24.8 percent of 132 patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. That's nearly twice as effective as the current preferred treatment.( ).

drug pembrolizumab

Phase 2 trial identifies genetic dysfunction that makes many types of cancer vulnerable to an immunotherapy ::: A team of researchers has identified a genetic malfunction that predicts the effectiveness of response to a groundbreaking immunotherapy. The results of their Phase 2 clinical trial reveal that, regardless of its tissue of origin, tumors whose cells are deficient in repairing mismatched DNA sequences–and so preventing mutations–are far more susceptible to the checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab than those that retain this ability.( ).

drug rapamycin

New tool to study an important anti-cancer, immunosuppressive target ::: The chemical rapamycin is used clinically as an immunosuppressant and as an anti-cancer agent that works by inactivating a protein named TOR (Target Of Rapamycin). This protein is essential for the growth of normal cells, but is hyperactive in tumor cells. To be able to carry out its various growth-related tasks, TOR needs to assemble into one of two larger protein complexes named TORC1 and TORC2. Curiously, whereas TORC1 is inhibited by rapamycin. ( ).

drug ruxolitinib

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib has promising efficacy ::: Scientists are reporting on the first phase 1 study of the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in CMML patients. ( ).

ebola tweet

Twitter shared news of first Ebola case 3 days before officials ::: Tweets regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa last summer reached more than 60 million people in the three days prior to official outbreak announcements, according to a study. ( ).

el sår

Understanding how cells follow electric fields::: Weak electric fields may be important in guiding cells into wounds to heal them. Researchers have developed a screen to search for genes linked to electrotaxis, the ability to move in response to electric fields.( ).

energi skibe

Hybrid ships will soon be on the market ::: Hybrid cars have been a success. The shipping industry is now moving in the same green direction. ( ).

energi turbine kondensator

Thin coating on condensers could make power plants more efficient ::: Most of the world's electricity-producing power plants — whether powered by coal, natural gas, or nuclear fission — make electricity by generating steam that turns a turbine. That steam then is condensed back to water, and the cycle begins again. But the condensers that collect the steam are quite inefficient, and improving them could make a big difference in overall power plant efficiency. A thin coating on condensers could make power plants more efficient, scientists now report.( ).


Yeast protein network could provide insights into human obesity ::: A team of biologists and a mathematician has identified and characterized a network composed of 94 proteins that work together to regulate fat storage in yeast. The findings suggest that yeast could serve as a valuable test organism for studying human obesity.( ).

fantom øje

New perspective on phantom eye syndrome ::: Approximately half of patients who have an eye removed because of a form of eye cancer experience `phantom eye syndrome,' new research concludes. Patients with the condition experience "seeing" and pain in the eye that is no longer there. Researchers assessed 179 patients whose eye had been removed as a result of a cancer, called intraocular melanoma.( ).

fisk savfisk

Endangered sawfishes having babies, no sex required ::: Some female members of a critically endangered species of sawfish are reproducing in the wild without sex. The discovery marks the first time living offspring from 'virgin births' have been found in a normally sexually reproducing vertebrate in the wild, the researchers say. ( ).

fisk ål

Genetic analysis of the American eel helps explain its decline ::: The numbers of American eels in freshwater areas have been decreasing rapidly but scientists have been puzzled as to why the fish can't recolonize. Now, a new look at eel genetics finds that there are differences between eels that feed in freshwater and eels that feed in brackish environments that were previously thought to be genetically interchangeable. ( ).

flue hjerne

Smart flies can match odd scents to sweet treats based on time of day ::: Flies might be smarter than you think. New research shows fruit flies know what time of day it is. What's more, the insects can learn to connect different scents with the sweet reward of sugar, depending on the hour: menthol in the morning and mushrooms in the afternoon.( ).


Mollusk shells: Modern humans inhabited Near East at least 45,900 years ago, colonized Europe from there ::: New high precision radiocarbon dates of mollusk shells show that modern humans occupied the Near East at least 45,900 years ago and colonized Europe from there. ( ).

fortid afrika

Ethiopian and Egyptian genomes help map early humans' route out of Africa ::: Although scientists are confident that all modern human populations can trace their ancestry back to Africa, the route taken out of Africa is still unclear. New genomic analyses of people currently living in Ethiopia and Egypt indicate that Egypt was the major gateway out of Africa and that migration followed a northern rather than a southern route. The findings add a crucial piece of information to help investigators reconstruct humans' evolutionary past.( ).


Prosthetic hands with a sense of touch? 'Sensory feedback' from artificial limbs ::: Researchers are exploring new approaches to designing prosthetic hands capable of providing "sensory feedback." New advances have been made toward developing prostheses with a sense of touch. ( ).


New color blindness cause identified: Finding suggests potential therapeutic targets ::: A rare eye disorder marked by color blindness, light sensitivity, and other vision problems can result from a newly discovered gene mutation identified by an international research team. The findings could lead to new, targeted treatments for this form of color blindness.( ).


Scientists discover key to what causes immune cell migration to wounds ::: Immune cells play an important role in the upkeep and repair of our bodies, helping us to defend against infection and disease. Until now, how these cells detect a wounded or damaged site has largely remained a mystery. New research has identified the triggers which lead these cells to react and respond in cell repair.( ).

hjerne i disk

A patient's budding cortex — in a dish? Networking neurons thrive in 3-D human 'organoid' ::: Scientists have perfected mini cultured 3-D structures that grow and function much like the outer mantle — the key working tissue, or cortex — of the brain of the person from whom they were derived. Strikingly, these 'organoids' buzz with neuronal network activity. Cells talk with each other in circuits, much as they do in our brains. ( ).

hjerne optogenetik

Scientists retrieve lost memories using optogenetics ::: Researchers have found that memories that have been 'lost' as a result of amnesia can be recalled by activating brain cells with light. They reactivated memories that could not otherwise be retrieved, using a technology known as optogenetics. ( ).


Available genetic data could help doctors make better use of cardiovascular drugs ::: Few heart specialists make use of published information about interactions between drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease and the genetic variations that affect how patients respond to them, researchers say. As a result, a group of physicians combed through the literature on the pharmacogenomics of the leading cardiovascular drugs and compiled summaries.( ).


Preoperative statins reduce mortality in coronary artery bypass graft surgery ::: New research is exploring the protective effect of various heart medications that patients are taking before undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and concludes that statins reduce the risk of death by two thirds, or 67 percent, while no consistent effects were seen for other medications. ( ).

huske medicin-søvn

How sleep helps us learn and memorize ::: Sleep is important for long lasting memories, particularly during this exam season. New research suggests that sleeping triggers the synapses in our brain to both strengthen and weaken, which prompts the forgetting, strengthening or modification of our memories in a process known as long-term potentiation.( ).


Missing link found between brain, immune system; major disease implications ::: In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. The discovery could have profound implications for diseases from autism to Alzheimer's to multiple sclerosis.( ).

kirurgi blodtryk

Before an operation, low blood pressure rather than high is a risk factor for death ::: New research suggests that, before an operation, low blood pressure rather than high blood pressure is an independent risk factor for death. ( ).

kirurgi lattergas

No reason for laughing gas to be withdrawn from operating theaters ::: A new article concludes that there is 'no clinically relevant evidence for the withdrawal of nitrous oxide.'( ).

kirurgi rygere

Smokers and those exposed to passive smoke require more anesthetic and painkiller during operations ::: New research shows that both smokers and those exposed to passive smoke require more anesthetic and painkillers to reach the same level of anesthesia as non-smokers.( ).

klima politik

75 per cent of annual global greenhouse gas emissions covered by national targets ::: Three-quarters of the world’s annual emissions of greenhouse gases are now limited by national targets, according to a new study.( ).


Sex and musculoskeletal health: Differences between males and females ::: Woman in general have a higher incidence of osteoporosis-related hip fractures yet, conversely, they have a lower rate of mortality than men with the same fracture, according to a new study. ( ).


Kit may help train global health providers to insert, remove contraceptive implants ::: To address a global health challenge, a team of biomedical engineering undergraduates has developed a kit to teach front-line health care workers in developing countries how to implant contraceptives. ( ).

kvant tele

Donuts, math, and superdense teleportation of quantum information ::: Quantum teleportation has been achieved by a number of research teams around the globe since it was first theorized in 1993, but current experimental methods require extensive resources and/or only work successfully a fraction of the time. Now, by taking advantage of the mathematical properties intrinsic to the shape of a donut — or torus, in mathematical terminology — a physicists have made great strides by realizing 'superdense teleportation.'( ).


Laser beam compressed into thin filament ::: Scientists have been researching the process of laser pulse filamentation — the effect produced when a laser beam propagating in air focuses into a filament. The researchers discovered how this process influences the preliminary transition of a beam passing through quartz glass, which has applications in the field of nonlinear optics. ( ).

lykke studerende

Happiest university graduates are more likely to land a good first job ::: Happy graduates have a greater chance of being hired for a high quality first job. The study points out that promoting learning and practice of attitudes that encourage happiness could improve the employability of graduates.( ).


Magnetism can control heat, sound ::: Elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound — known as acoustic phonons — also have magnetic properties and can, therefore, be controlled by magnets, even for materials thought to be 'nonmagnetic,' such as semiconductors. This discovery 'adds a new dimension to our understanding of acoustic waves,' according to a landmark study.( ).


Picture perfect: Researchers use photos to understand how diabetes affects kids ::: If a picture is worth a thousand words, Type 1 diabetes researchers have tapped into an encyclopedia, revealing new insights into how young people cope with the disease. The study found key differences in adolescents of different genders and socioeconomic classes that could shape patient care and diabetes education, especially for boys and less-affluent young people. ( ).


Insulin degludec: No hint of added benefit in children and adolescents ::: With regard to insulin degludec, no added benefit for adolescents and children with diabetes mellitus can be derived from the drug manufacturer dossier. In girls with type 1 diabetes, severe side effects were more frequent.( ).

medicin-medicin-fedme fruktose

Fructose contributes to weight gain, physical inactivity, and body fat, researchers find ::: Matched calorie for calorie with the simple sugar glucose, fructose causes significant weight gain, physical inactivity, and body fat deposition, a new study has concluded. Because of the addition of high-fructose corn syrup to many soft drinks and processed baked goods, fructose currently accounts for 10 percent of caloric intake for U.S. citizens.( ).


New discoveries advance efforts to build replacement kidneys in the lab ::: Researchers are making progress in their quest to build replacement kidneys in the lab by using the more than 2,600 kidneys that are donated each year, but must be discarded due to abnormalities and other factors. The scientists aim to 'recycle' these organs to engineer tailor-made replacement kidneys for patients.( ).


Carbon nanotubes grown in combustion flames::: An international research team’s theoretical simulation of the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes has revealed important details of the mechanisms at play. This could lead to better ways to control the production of carbon nanotubes. ( ).


Using carbon nanotubes to improve bio-oil refining ::: New catalyst structures based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes are set to make the refining of commodity chemicals and fuels from bio-oil more competitive.( ).


Manipulating cell membranes using nanotubes::: Researchers have developed a targeted method for opening up cell membranes in order to deliver drugs to, or manipulate the genes of, individual cells. ( ).


Testing how well kidneys are functioning: ACR outperforms eGFR, study suggests ::: The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a test used to check how well the kidneys are filtering blood) and albuminuria (excess protein levels in the urine, which can be a sign of kidney damage) for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial.( ).


Measuring kidney health could better predict heart disease risk ::: Simple measures of kidney function and damage may be just as good at predicting who is at risk for heart failure and death from heart attack and stroke as traditional tests of cholesterol levels and blood pressure, new research suggests.( ).


Less-invasive method for kidney diagnostics ::: Researchers have identified a new, less-invasive method to provide diagnostic information on kidney disease and its severity.( ).


Zinc in the body may contribute to kidney stones ::: New research on kidney stone formation reveals that zinc levels may contribute to kidney stone formation, a common urinary condition that can cause excruciating pain. The research found that zinc may be the core by which stone formation starts. ( ).


Quantum magnetic ordering: Moving out of equilibrium ::: Physicists have taken an interest in quantum magnetic ordering, which is believed to be intimately related to high-temperature superconductivity and also has significance in other massively connected quantum systems. Recently, a group studied the magnetic and motional dynamics of atoms in a specially designed laser-based lattice that looks like a checkerboard. ( ).


Physicists solve quantum tunneling mystery ::: Scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. ( ).

sclerose køn

Protecting women from multiple sclerosis ::: An innocent mistake made by a graduate student in a lab who accidentally used male mice instead of female mice during an experiment, has led scientists to a novel discovery that offers new insight into why women are more likely than men to develop autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.( ).

stamcelle planter

Stem cell switch on the move ::: The roots of a plant are constantly growing, so that they can provide the plant with water and minerals while also giving it a firm anchor in the ground. Responsible for these functions are pluripotent stem cells. In order to avoid differentiation and to remain pluripotent, these stem cells are dependent on signals from their neighboring cells. These signals are generated by only a small group of slowly dividing cells in the so-called quiescent centre inside the root. Biologists can now demonstrate how signals in plant roots determine the activity of stem cells.( ).

stamceller hippocampus

Research solves mystery of memory and mood::: Researchers have identified two types of stem cells in the hippocampus, a region of the brain crucial for learning and memory.( ).


Physicists map electron structure of superconductivity’s 'doppelgänger' ::: Physicists have painted an in-depth portrait of charge ordering — an electron self-organization regime in high-temperature superconductors that may be intrinsically intertwined with superconductivity itself. ( ).

svampesygdom antibiotika

New anti-microbial compounds evade resistance with less toxicity ::: New compounds that specifically attack fungal infections without attacking human cells could transform treatment for such infections and point the way to targeted medicines that evade antibiotic resistance. ( ).


Smoking legislation prevents more than 11,000 child hospital admissions in England each year ::: The introduction of smoke-free legislation in England was associated with over 11,000 fewer admissions to hospital a year from respiratory infections in children, according to a new study. ( ).


Researchers create new combination vaccine to fight Streptococcus A ::: A groundbreaking, combination vaccine has been developed that may finally beat Streptococcus A infections. Human trials are set to begin, early as next year, for the vaccine which combines the protein, SpyCEP, with a previously developed vaccine J8-DT. ( ).

virus hepatitis

Drug prevents passage of HBV during pregnancy ::: The antiviral drug telbivudine prevents perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus, according to a study. Hepatitis B virus, which has infected nearly two billion people worldwide, is a leading cause of liver disease.( ).

vulkanisme galapagos

Highly explosive volcanism at Galapagos ::: Eight to 16 million years ago, highly explosive volcanism occurred in the area of today's Galapagos Islands. This is shown for the first time by analyses of core samples obtained by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program in the eastern Pacific Ocean. ( ).


Invasive microbe protects corals from global warming, but at a cost ::: An invasive species of symbiotic micro-alga has spread across the Caribbean Sea, according to an international team of researchers. These single-cell algae, which live within the cells of coral animals, are improving the resilience of coral communities to heat stress caused by global warming, but also are diminishing the abilities of corals to build reefs. ( ).

Self-harm, suicide ideation tightly linked in Iraq, Afghanistan veterans ::: Non-suicidal self-injury — that is, purposefully hurting oneself without conscious suicidal intent — is relatively common among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, and it is a strong risk factor for suicidal behavior, according to research.( ).

Enhanced dating site photos have mixed results for men and women ::: Enhanced photos of women viewed by men increased attractiveness but lowered trustworthiness, a new study has found. Women found enhanced photos of men both increased attractiveness and increased trustworthiness.( ).

Large landslides lie low: Himalaya-Karakoram ranges ::: Large landslides are an important process of erosion in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges. These high-relief landscapes are characterized by steep slopes that are prone to frequent landsliding. By mapping nearly 500 large (greater than 0.1 km2) landslides in the HKR, geologists have found that the vast majority of these mass movements lie in the lower portions of the landscape, whereas glaciers and rock glaciers occupy the higher elevations almost exclusively.( ).

Biting back: Scientists aim to forecast West Nile outbreaks ::: New research has identified correlations between weather conditions and the occurrence of West Nile virus disease in the United States, raising the possibility of being able to better predict outbreaks.( ).

Buyers' readiness to take risk is top cause for volatility in US house prices ::: Consumer willingness to take chances with their money in large part triggers fluctuations in housing prices, a study concludes. Researchers used a dynamic factor model to boil down the price-rent ratios of 23 major housing markets into a national factor and independent local factors, then tied these to economic fundamentals of housing markets in the U.S.( ).

Study links post-acute care hospital costs with lower survival rates ::: Spending on post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) provides a key signal of inefficiency in the health care system, leading to higher spending and lower patient survival, experts say in a new report.( ).

Sex chromosomes: Why the Y genes matter ::: Several genes have been lost from the Y chromosome in humans and other mammals, according to research. The study shows that essential Y genes are rescued by relocating to other chromosomes, and it identifies a potentially important genetic factor in male infertility. ( ).

Study tackles evolution mystery of animal, plant warning cues for survival ::: Not every encounter between predator and prey results in death. A new study co-authored by a University of Tennessee, Knoxville, professor suggests that prey emit warning cues that can ultimately lead to both their survival and that of their predators. The hypothesis addresses a 150-year-old mystery of evolution on how warning signals of animals and plants arise and explains animals' instinctive avoidances of dangerous prey. ( ).

Importance of clinically actionable results in genetic panel testing for cancer ::: While advances in technology have made multigene testing, or 'panel testing,' for genetic mutations that increase the risk of breast or other cancers an option, authors of a review say larger studies are needed in order to provide reliable risk estimates for counseling these patients.( ).

Girls receive conflicting career messages from media, new research shows ::: Teenage girls like and feel more similar to women in appearance-focused jobs such as models and actresses, though they find female CEOs and military pilots to be better role models, according to a new study. ( ).

How longhorned beetles find Mr. Right ::: A longhorned beetle's sexy scent might make a female perk up her antennae. But when the males of several species all smell the same, a female cannot choose by cologne alone. For these beetles to find a mate of the right species, timing is everything, according to research. ( ).

Laser-beam scanning illuminates new details in dinosaur fossils ::: Scientists have developed methods of using commercial-grade laser equipment to find and analyze fossils of dinosaurs. The new laser method causes fossil samples to fluoresce, revealing complex details unseen with traditional visual enhancers like ultraviolet light. ( ).

African-Americans at lower socioeconomic levels have increased risk of heart disease ::: African-Americans, especially women and young adults at lower socioeconomic levels have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. The findings underscore the need for increased awareness and education about prevention and early detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease in African-American women and younger adults. ( ).

Chemists discover key reaction mechanism behind the highly touted sodium-oxygen battery ::: Chemists have discovered the key reaction that takes place in sodium-air batteries that could pave the way for development of the so-called holy grail of electrochemical energy storage. ( ).

Job-sharing with nursing robots ::: Given the threat of a massive earthquake striking Japan, researchers have organized a cooperative project team to develop a new robot. They set about determining the factors that are most important to hospital patients in modern society, after which they set about developing the world's first medical round robot capable of job-sharing, making more time for face-to-face nursing care. ( ).

Tiny parasite may contribute to declines in honey bee colonies by infecting larvae ::: A tiny single-celled parasite may have a greater-than expected impact on honey bee colonies, which have been undergoing mysterious declines worldwide for the past decade, researchers have discovered. Since 2006, beekeepers in North America and Europe have lost about one-third of their managed bee colonies each year due to "colony collapse disorder." While the exact cause is unknown, scientists have speculated that pesticides, pathogens, mites and certain beekeeping practices have all contributed to this decline.( ).

Solid-state photonics goes extreme ultraviolet::: Using ultrashort laser pulses, scientists have demonstrated the emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation from thin dielectric films and have investigated the underlying mechanisms. The experiments pave the way towards new solid-based photonic devices. Because the motion of the electrons driven by the laser pulse probes the properties of the solid, measurements of the emitted radiation lead to a deeper understanding of the structure and the inner workings of solids.( ).

Lethal wounds on skull may indicate 430,000 year-old murder ::: Research into lethal wounds found on a human skull may indicate one of the first cases of murder in human history–some 430,000 years ago–and offers evidence of the earliest funerary practices in the archaeological record. ( ).

Tumor surroundings are shown to affect progression of different cancer subtypes ::: Our environment can have a major impact on how we develop, and it turns out it's no different for cancer cells. A team of researchers reports that two different mouse models of breast cancer progressed differently based on characteristics of the tumor microenvironment — the area of tissue in which the tumor is embedded. ( ).

New algorithm lets autonomous robots divvy up assembly tasks on the fly ::: Today's industrial robots are remarkably efficient — as long as they're in a controlled environment where everything is exactly where they expect it to be. ( ).

Ending Medicaid dental benefit is costly, experts say ::: A study finds states gain little when dropping adult dental coverage. Researchers say adults in California made 1,800 more hospital visits annually for dental care after losing the benefit. California spent $2.9 million each year, 68 percent more before eliminating the benefit. ( ).

America's research funding squeeze imperils patient care, say top medical school deans ::: Constraints in federal funding, compounded by declining clinical revenue, jeopardize more than America's research enterprise, experts say. These twin pressures have created a "hostile working environment" that erodes time to conduct research, "discourages innovative high-risk science" and threatens to drive established and early-career scientists out of the field. And this, they add, in turn undermines patient care.( ).

Congressional action needed to optimize regulation of genomic tests ::: Latest generation genomic testing offers a chance for improvements in patient care, disease prevention and healthcare cost-effectiveness. A new report recommends that Congress incentivize development of massive data systems that doctors and regulators will need to make these tests safe and effective for patients. Existing regulatory oversight should be bolstered with ongoing postmarket data collection to study tests after they are in use and resolve lingering questions about health impacts of as-yet-poorly-understood genetic variants, experts argue. ( ).

Brain signals contain the code for your next move ::: Is it possible to tap into the signalling in the brain to figure out what you will choose to do next? Researchers can now say yes, and have published a description of how this happens. ( ).

New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species ::: A new relative joins 'Lucy' on the human family tree. Scientists have discovered a 3.3 to 3.5 million-year-old new human ancestor species. Upper and lower jaw fossils recovered from the Woranso-Mille area of the Afar region of Ethiopia have been assigned to the new species Australopithecus deyiremeda. This hominin lived alongside the famous 'Lucy's' species, Australopithecus afarensis. ( ).

Global climate on verge of multi-decadal change ::: The global climate is on the verge of broad-scale change that could last for a number of decades a new study implies. The change to the new set of climatic conditions is associated with a cooling of the Atlantic, and is likely to bring drier summers in Britain and Ireland, accelerated sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States, and drought in the developing countries of the Sahel region.( ).

Shock Collision Inside Black Hole Jet ::: Astronomers have discovered for the first time a rear-end collision between two high-speed knots of ejected matter from a supermassive black hole. This discovery was made while piecing together a time-lapse movie of a plasma jet blasted from a supermassive black hole inside galaxy 3C 264, located 260 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Leo.( ).

Using debt to maintain status quo leaves families on rocky road to recovery ::: Economically vulnerable families are increasingly willing to take on debt to maintain a basic standard of living — a situation that can put them into a deep financial hole, according to a new study. ( ).

Medical, magnetic millirobots offer hope for less-invasive surgeries ::: Seeking to advance minimally invasive medical treatments, researchers have proposed using tiny robots, driven by magnetic potential energy from magnetic resonance imaging scanners. The potential technology could be used to treat hydrocephalus and other conditions, allowing surgeons to avoid current treatments that require cutting through the skull to implant pressure-relieving shunts, the researchers say.( ).

America: Who's making sure the power stays on? ::: Electricity systems in the United States are so haphazardly regulated for reliability, it’s nearly impossible for customers to know their true risk of losing service in a major storm, experts say. ( ).

DNA: Expanding code of life with new 'letters'::: The DNA encoding all life on Earth is made of four building blocks called nucleotides, commonly known as 'letters,' that line up in pairs and twist into a double helix. Now, two groups of scientists are reporting for the first time that two new nucleotides can do the same thing — raising the possibility that entirely new proteins could be created for medical uses.( ).

Tablets can help elderly cross the 'digital divide' ::: One way to help the elderly cross what's known as the 'digital divide' is the use of tablets, those smaller, lighter, easy-to-use computers that seem to be taking the place of laptops. ( ).

Heart: Electronic stent to provide feedback and therapy, then dissolve ::: Every year, an estimated half-million Americans undergo surgery to have a stent prop open a coronary artery narrowed by plaque. But sometimes the mesh tubes get clogged. Scientists have now developed a new kind of multi-tasking stent that could minimize the risks associated with the procedure. It can sense blood flow and temperature, store and transmit the information for analysis and can be absorbed by the body after it finishes its job.( ).

Perfume researchers lend their noses to design less odorous latrines ::: About 2.5 billion people worldwide don't have access to sanitary toilets. Latrines are an option for many of those people, but these facilities' overwhelming odors can deter users, who then defecate outdoors instead. To improve this situation, fragrance scientists paired experts' noses and analytical instruments to determine the odor profiles of latrines with the aim of countering the offensive stench. ( ).

How should Norway legalize egg donation? ::: More than 5 million children in Europe have been born as a result of assisted reproductive technologies, yet many European countries have regulations that restrict different aspects of these technologies. The result is that European women travel elsewhere to get services that are not currently available in their home countries. Now, the Norwegian Biotechnology Council is recommending that egg donation be made legal in Norway.( ).

Common cancer drug increases collagen in melanoma ::: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and investigators are uncertain how its presence affects the behavior of melanoma cells. The goal of their study was to understand how the drug affects collagen synthesis by the tumor cells.( ).

Study identifies brain regions activated when pain intensity doesn't match expectation ::: Picture yourself in a medical office, anxiously awaiting your annual flu shot. The nurse casually states, "This won't hurt a bit." But when the needle pierces your skin it hurts, and it hurts a lot. Your expectations have been violated, and not in a good way.( ).

Any dose of alcohol combined with cannabis significantly increases levels of THC in blood ::: Cannabis plus alcohol is one of the most frequently detected drug combinations in car accidents, yet the interaction of these two compounds is still poorly understood. A study shows for the first time that the simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis produces significantly higher blood concentrations of cannabis's main psychoactive constituent, THC, as well as THC's primary active metabolite than cannabis use alone. ( ).

State regulations for indoor tanning could lead to a national regulatory framework ::: A national regulatory framework designed to prevent and limit indoor tanning is needed to alleviate the cancer burden and reduce the billions in financial costs from preventable skin cancer, say two public health experts.( ).

Experiment confirms quantum theory weirdness ::: The bizarre nature of reality as laid out by quantum theory has survived another test, with scientists performing a famous experiment and proving that reality does not exist until it is measured. Physicists have conducted John Wheeler's delayed-choice thought experiment, which involves a moving object that is given the choice to act like a particle or a wave. The group reversed Wheeler's original experiment, and used helium atoms scattered by light. ( ).

Strength-based parenting improves children's resilience and stress levels ::: Children are more likely to use their strengths to effectively cope with minor stress in their life if they have parents who adopt a strength-based approach to parenting. Strength-based parenting is an approach where parents deliberately identify and cultivate positive states, processes and qualities in their children, the researchers explain. ( ).

New climate stress index model challenges doomsday forecasts for world's coral reefs ::: A newer and more complex model incorporating data from both environmental factors and field observations of coral responses to stress provides a better forecasting tool than the more widely used models and a more positive future for coral reefs, according to a new study.( ).

Inexperienced investors should take advantage of 'auto-pilot investing' ::: Use of target-date is a positive trend that will help inexperienced investors invest safely without risking significant losses based on their lack of knowledge, an expert writes. Target-date funds, which were endorsed by Congress in the Pension Protection Act of 2006, are also known as life-cycle funds. This means that TDFs change their asset mix of stocks and bonds based on the age of the investor.( ).

Extra love and support doesn't make up for being a helicopter parent ::: Scholars who found that helicopter parenting backfires have just published a follow-up study. Their question: Would lots of love and support negate the effects of parental hovering? Their data analysis says no, underscoring the need for parents to step back and let young adult children lead. ( ).

Online hookup sites increase HIV rates in sometimes surprising ways ::: The introduction of Craigslist led to an increase in HIV infection cases of 13.5 percent in Florida over a four-year period, according to a new study. The estimated medical costs for those patients will amount to $710 million over the course of their lives, research shows. ( ).

Online gambling would benefit from better regulation ::: The US government's attempt to crack down on Internet gambling is widely seen as a convoluted mess. Yet, more controlled and defined regulation would likely benefit the $41 billion industry and protect consumers alike, finds a new study by business scholars.( ).

Crashing comets may explain mysterious lunar swirls ::: Researchers have produced new evidence that lunar swirls — wispy bright regions scattered on the moon's surface — were created by several comet collisions over the last 100 million years. ( ).

New evidence emerges on the origins of life ::: New research shows that the close linkage between the physical properties of amino acids, the genetic code, and protein folding was likely the key factor in the evolution from building blocks to organisms when Earth's first life was emerging from the primordial soup.( ).

Microgravity experiments may help lighten the load of joint diseases ::: Going into space might wreak havoc on our bodies, but a new set of microgravity experiments may help shed light on new approaches for treating cartilage diseases on Earth. A team of scientists suggests that our cartilage–tissue that serves as a cushion between bones–might be able to survive microgravity relatively unscathed.( ).

New study evaluates remedial pathways for community college students ::: Academic programs that provide alternatives to traditional remedial education help students succeed at community colleges, but different programs result in a range of outcomes for various sub-populations of students, a report says.( ).

US Forest Service publishes plan for North American Bat Monitoring Program ::: A new report provides detailed guidelines for participating in the North American Bat Monitoring Program, an international multiagency program created to provide the data needed to make effective decisions about bat populations across the North American continent. ( ).

Canada's radon guidelines are inadequate, experts say ::: Radon gas is a silent health threat, and Canada needs to align its guidelines for acceptable radon levels with World Health Organization limits, argues a physician expert.( ).

Despite guidelines, too many medical tests are performed before low-risk procedures ::: Despite guideline recommendations to limit medical tests before low-risk surgeries, electrocardiograms and chest X-rays are still performed frequently, found a Canadian study.( ).

Ancient algae found deep in tropical glacier ::: Researchers looking for carbon in equatorial ice cores have found diatoms, a type of algae. Their presence is evidence of what the landscape around the Andes in Peru might have been like more than a millennium ago.( ).

10th-century medical philosophy and computer simulation in research ::: The writings of a 10th-century medical philosopher are being linked to the use of computer simulation as an alternative to using animals in medical research. ( ).

At peak fertility, women who desire to maintain body attractiveness report they eat less ::: Women near peak fertility — those nearing ovulation — and who are motivated to manage their body appearance, reported they desire to lose weight and so ate fewer calories. Previous ovulation research has attributed reduced eating solely to neuroendocrinological factors. The new findings indicate an additional factor is a woman's concern about her body appearance, say authors. ( ).

Civilian physicians feel underprepared to treat veterans, survey finds ::: A survey of nearly 150 U.S. physicians who frequently treat veterans found civilian doctors aren't adequately trained in health issues related to military service. More than half of the respondent indicated they were not comfortable discussing health-related exposures and risks that veterans might experience such as depleted uranium, smoke and chemical weapons. ( ).

The ebb and flow of Greenland's glaciers ::: In northwestern Greenland, glaciers flow from the main ice sheet to the ocean in see-sawing seasonal patterns. The ice generally flows faster in the summer than in winter, and the ends of glaciers, jutting out into the ocean, also advance and retreat with the seasons. Now, a new analysis shows some important connections between these seasonal patterns, sea ice cover and longer-term trends.( ).

Medical home intervention with shared savings shows quality, utilization improvements ::: By paying bonuses to participating medical practices based on reaching quality and spending benchmarks, shared savings contracts created direct financial incentives to contain the costs and utilization of care without compromising the quality of care. This intervention also helped practices develop care management systems, and health plans gave participating practices timely data on their patients' use of hospitals and emergency departments. ( ).

Study explores reasons behind alcohol abuse in non-heterosexual women ::: Non-heterosexual women who feel a disconnect between who they are attracted to and how they identify themselves may have a higher risk of alcohol abuse, according to a new study.( ).

How does human behavior lead to surgical errors? Researchers count the ways ::: Why are major surgical errors called "never events?" Because they shouldn't happen — but do. Researchers identified 69 never events among 1.5 million invasive procedures performed over five years and detailed why each occurred.( ).

American surgery patients: More pain medication, yet more pain ::: New research shows that American patients undergoing orthopedic surgery receive more treatments for pain and that their experience of pain differs in some aspects to orthopedic patients internationally. ( ).

High cost of healthcare for UK military amputees from Afghan conflict ::: Researchers have calculated that £288 million is the cost of lifetime care for amputee veterans from the Afghanistan conflict. ( ).

Mobile Maestro: Immersive sound reproduction system from several smart phones ::: Mobile Maestro enables users to enjoy a high-quality listening experience anytime and anywhere through the collaborative use of multiple mobile devices.( ).

Many UK patients with gonorrhea prescribed outdated antibiotics ::: Many UK patients with gonorrhea are being prescribed antibiotics that are no longer recommended for treating the infection by their family doctor, reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Open.( ).

End European agreements with tobacco industry designed to curb smuggling, urge experts ::: The agreements drawn up between the European Union and the four major transnational tobacco companies, to crack down on cigarette smuggling and recoup lost tax revenues, are failing to meet their stated aims, concludes research. ( ).

nsect mating behavior has lessons for drones::: Male moths locate females by navigating along the latter's pheromone (odor) plume. Two strategies are involved: males must find the outer envelope of the pheromone plume, and then head upwind. Can understanding such insect behavior be useful for robotics research? Yes, according to an entomologist, whose research using computer simulations shows that such insect behavior has implications for airborne robots (drones) that ply the sky searching for signature odors.( ).

Hypothermia occurs during surgery in around half of patients ::: A study shows that hypothermia occurs in around half of patients undergoing surgery, despite national guidelines for its prevention. ( ).

Blood pressure medications can lead to increased risk of stroke ::: The importance of preventing hypertension is reinforced by a study showing anti-hypertension medicines can increase stroke risk by 248 percent, according to new research. ( ).

Working together to build drought resiliency::: As drought continues, and demand grows, researchers are looking to new models to improve the Rio Grande region's drought resiliency. ( ).

Social work researchers create easier, accurate way to analyze TSCC trauma results ::: A social work research team has proposed and tested an alternative method to using the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children in assessing trauma in children — especially those in the juvenile justice system. ( ).

Migraine surgery for teens: Good results in initial experience ::: As in adults, migraine surgery is effective for selected adolescent patients with severe migraine headaches that don't respond to standard treatments, reports a new study. ( ).

Little-known quake, tsunami hazards lurk offshore of Southern California ::: While their attention may be inland on the San Andreas Fault, residents of coastal Southern California could be surprised by very large earthquakes — and even tsunamis — from several major faults that lie offshore, a new study finds.( ).

Race influences warfarin dose ::: A new report demonstrates that clinical and genetic factors affecting dose requirements for warfarin vary by race. The study proposes race-specific equations to help clinicians better calculate warfarin dosage. ( ).

Severe flooding hits central Texas, Oklahoma::: A stagnant upper-air pattern that spread numerous storms and heavy rains from central Texas up into Oklahoma has resulted in record flooding for parts of the Lone Star State.( ).

Restricting firearms access for people who misuse alcohol may prevent violence ::: Restricting access to firearms for people who misuse alcohol could prevent firearm violence, but policies that more clearly define alcohol misuse should be developed to facilitate enforcement, according to a review of existing research and public policies.( ).

New technique harnesses everyday seismic waves to image Earth ::: Earth researchers have devised a technique that transforms the tiny tremors generated by the everyday hustle and bustle of city life into a tool for probing the subsurface of Earth. ( ).

Finding loopholes in the genome ::: R-loops, thought to initiate cellular mutations, genome breaks and diseases, may be identified with an accuracy of between 80-90 percent at lower costs and effort. ( ).

Green chemistry' to quantify the components of cosmetics ::: There are 10,000 components that can be used to make cosmetics. These components have to be monitored to guarantee consumer safety. Scientists have now developed three 'green' analytical methods to simultaneously analyze various components used in cosmetics. In these methods very little solvent is used and very little residue is produced in comparison with other analytical techniques. ( ).

Microscopic sonic screwdriver invented ::: Engineers have created tiny acoustic vortices and used them to grip and spin microscopic particles suspended in water.( ).

Inmates denied methadone treatment less likely to seek it once free ::: When people on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) are incarcerated in the United States, they are almost always forced off of the addiction-controlling medicine. In a randomized trial, inmates allowed to stay on MMT while in jail proved much more likely to seek treatment after release than those whose treatment was interrupted. ( ).

Parental smoking puts nearly half a million UK children into poverty ::: Smoking is not only bad for your health; it also puts 400,000 children in poverty in the UK alone. Smoking places a financial burden on low income families, suggesting that parents are likely to forgo basic household and food necessities in order to fund their addiction. ( ).

Godwits are flexible, when they get the chance::: Black-tailed godwits are able to cope with unpredictable weather, a thorough analysis finds, following the extraordinary spring of 2013 in Belgium. That year, godwits were surprised by an exceptionally cold spring upon their return to the Netherlands. Nevertheless the godwits had a particularly productive breeding season that year, authors noted.( ).

All forms of smoking are bad for the heart ::: All forms of smoking are bad for the heart, the European Society of Cardiology has warned.( ).

Sharp-eyed Alma spots a gigantic flare on famous red giant star ::: Super-sharp observations with the telescope Alma have revealed what seems to be a gigantic flare on the surface of Mira, one of the closest and most famous red giant stars in the sky. Activity like this in red giants – similar to what we see in the Sun — comes as a surprise to astronomers. The discovery could help explain how winds from giant stars make their contribution to our galaxy's ecosystem. ( ).

Sensor measures properties of tiny amounts of fluid ::: Researchers have developed fiber-based “optofluidic” sensors for measuring the properties of tiny amounts of fluid. The innovation increases the sensitivity of measurements and makes it less expensive for researchers and clinicians to study the properties of fluids. ( ).

Constructing complex molecules with atomic precision ::: Researchers have developed a waste-free and cost-effective approach for preparing complex organic molecules and revealing the physical nature of the processes that control the direction of chemical transformations. ( ).

New Wi-Fi antenna enhances wireless coverage::: Researchers have succeeded in using ionized gas in a common fluorescent light tube as an antenna for a Wi-Fi Internet router.( ).

Parents feel racial socialization may help minority children succeed in school ::: A connection between certain approaches to racial socialization in early childhood and parents' expectations for greater success in school has been uncovered by a new study. The researchers organized 16 focus groups involving 114 parents of children four years of age and younger from several ethnicity-language groups. Parents participating in the study felt that racial socialization in early childhood promotes school readiness, but were unsure of the best timing and particular approach for success. ( ).

Unmanned aerial vehicle used to study gray whales from above ::: Scientists are using an unmanned aerial vehicle to take very precise overhead images of migrating gray whale mothers and calves. This research will help scientists understand how environmental conditions control the reproductive success of individual whales and ultimately of the population. ( ).

Brain training induces lasting brain, mental health gains for veterans, civilians with brain injury ::: In the first study of its kind, veterans and civilians with traumatic brain injury showed improved cognitive performance and psychological and neural health following strategy-based cognitive training. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of cognitive neuroscientists, rehabilitation specialists, and neuroimaging experts.( ).

Physicists precisely measure interaction between atoms and carbon surfaces ::: Physicists have conducted the most precise and controlled measurements yet of the interaction between the atoms and molecules that comprise air and the type of carbon surface used in battery electrodes and air filters — key information for improving those technologies.( ).

News may influence racial bias ::: A recent study suggests that long-term exposure to news may negatively influence racial bias towards social groups. ( ).

As people non-consciously categorize others by political affiliation, they ignore race, but not age or gender ::: Beatles versus Rolling Stones. Ironman versus the Incredible Hulk. Deep dish versus thin crust. Such differences of opinion among family and friends rarely end in serious squabbles. Let the conversation turn to political parties, however, and lively disagreements can become downright ugly. Why is it that even among the people we care about most, differences in political affiliation often result in awkwardness and discomfort, and pushed far enough, can feel like a threat to the entire relationship? ( ).

Even when we're resting, our brains are preparing us to be social ::: Our brains are wired to prepare us, during quiet moments, to be socially connected to other people, neuroscientists report. Facebook is aligned with the state of our brains at rest — which can explain why it's such a popular activity when we want to take a break. ( ).

How comets were assembled ::: Rosetta's target 'Chury' and other comets observed by space missions show common evidence of layered structures and bi-lobed shapes. With 3D computer simulations an astrophysicist was able to reconstruct the formation of these features as a result of gentle collisions and mergers. ( ).

Implicit social biases made to drop away during sleep ::: Can we learn to rid ourselves of our implicit biases regarding race and gender? A new study indicates that sleep may hold an important key to success in such efforts. Building on prior research, investigators aimed to find out whether learning to alter habitual reactions to other people could be enhanced during sleep. ( ).

New rapid-deployment plasma protocol effectively treats trauma patients quicker in the ER ::: Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death among people under age 45, but if trauma physicians could deliver plasma to these injury victims within minutes of their arrival in the emergency room, more of them would stand a better chance of survival.( ).

Sexual intrigue in nematodes: In battle of the sexes, a single night with a New York male is enough to kill ::: Men and women often enter relationships with different long-term goals. In the animal world, differences in approaches to reproductive success can lead to sexual conflict. In a new study, scientists show that sexual conflicts can evolve rapidly in natural populations, driven by competition among males for mating success. ( ).

New technique for isolating sunlight scattering could help illuminate Universe's birth ::: Astrophysicists have developed a new method for calculating the effect of Rayleigh scattering on photons, potentially allowing researchers to better understand the formation of the Universe. ( ).

Walnut twig beetle's origin, spread revealed in genetic studies ::: Even though the walnut twig beetle is likely native to Arizona, California, and New Mexico, it has become an invasive pest to economically and ecologically important walnut trees throughout much of the Western and into the Eastern United States. Through genetic testing, researchers have characterized the beetle's geographic distribution and range expansion. ( ).

Metformin use associated with reduced risk of developing open-angle glaucoma ::: Taking the medication metformin hydrochloride was associated with reduced risk of developing the sight-threatening disease open-angle glaucoma in people with diabetes, according to a study.( ).

Estimating the global burden of cancer in 2013; 14.9 million new cases worldwide ::: Researchers from around the world have worked together to try to measure the global burden of cancer and they estimate there were 14.9 million new cases of cancer, 8.2 million deaths and 196.3 million years of a healthy life lost in 2013, according to new research.( ).

Brain circuit that controls decisions that induce high anxiety identified ::: Some decisions arouse far more anxiety than others. Among the most anxiety-provoking are those that involve options with both positive and negative elements, such choosing to take a higher-paying job in a city far from family and friends, versus choosing to stay put with less pay.( ).

Scientists see a natural place for 'rewilded' plants in organic farming ::: One key element of organic agriculture is that it rejects unpredictable technologies, such as genetic engineering. But what if adding a gene from undomesticated plants to bring back a natural trait isn't unpredictable? Researchers present a case for using precise genetic engineering technologies to 'rewild' crops in a way that would make organic farming more efficient, and thus more profitable. ( ).

Long life: Balancing protein and carb intake may work as well as calorie restriction ::: Cutting calories through dietary restriction has been shown to lower cholesterol, improve insulin sensitivity, and even prolong life in mammals. Now, new research shows that, at least in mice, low protein, high carbohydrate diets can provide benefits similar to those obtained with calorie restriction.( ).

Controlling typhoid bacterium key to prevent gallbladder cancer in India and Pakistan ::: Controlling bacterial infections responsible for typhoid fever could dramatically reduce the risk of gallbladder cancer in India and Pakistan, according to study. The findings establish the causal link between bacterial infection and gallbladder cancer, explaining why this type of cancer is rare in the West but common in India and Pakistan, where typhoid fever is endemic. Public policy changes inspired by this research could have an immediate impact, experts say.( ).

Public raises alarm about ineffectiveness of some Montagu's harrier conservation measures::: A citizen science program reveals the protection measures for the Montagu's harrier in the cereal crop season in France to be ineffective if nests are not protected to decrease predation after harvesting. A new study proposes fencing off the nests as a way of mitigating the damage and optimizing conservation efforts in different areas.( ).

Health factors influence ex-prisoners' chances of returning to jail ::: Ex-prisoners with a history of risky drug use, mental illness or poverty are more likely to end up back behind bars. Those who are obese, are chronically ill or have attempted suicide are more likely to remain in the community. These are some of the findings from an exploratory study into health-related factors that could be used to predict whether a person released from prison will end up in custody again.( ).

Acquiring 'perfect' pitch may be possible for some adults ::: If you're a musician, this sounds too good to be true: psychologists have been able to train some adults to develop the prized musical ability of absolute pitch, and the training's effects last for months.( ).

Wastewater treatment may be creating new antibiotics ::: For years, scientists have been aware of the potential problems of antibiotics being present in wastewater, and new research is showing that treatments to clean wastewater may actually be creating new antibiotics and further contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.( ).

Sleep quality influences cognitive performance of autistic, neurotypical children ::: One night of poor sleep significantly decreases performance on intelligence tests in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and also in neurotypical children (without ASD). The researchers observed the EEG measures of 13 autistic children and 13 neurotypical children (children with a mean age of 10 years old without an intellectual deficiency or sleep problem and who were not on medication) and found that disruptions in protective brain waves during sleep are associated with lower results on verbal IQ tests. ( ).

New target for treating drug-resistant melanoma found ::: A new study explains why some melanoma tumors are resistant to BRAF inhibitor treatment. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, killing more than 8,000 people in the U.S. each year. Approximately 50 percent of melanoma tumors are driven by mutations in the BRAF gene, and patients with these tumors are prescribed BRAF inhibitors.( ).

Researchers unravel a link between a genetic mutation and autistic behaviors, then find a way to undo it ::: The mechanisms behind a genetic mutation that produces certain autistic behaviors in mice has been identified by researchers, as well as therapeutic strategies to restore normal behaviors. ( ).

Bladder cells regurgitate bacteria to prevent UTIs ::: Bladder cells have a highly effective way to combat E. coli bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs), researchers have found. They do to the bacteria what we could do to having indigestion problems: vomiting to rid the stomach of harmful substances.( ).

Pangolin trade: Experts urge reforms to CITES::: New research by conservationists suggests that in order to manage trade-threatened species more effectively the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora needs to act more upon the economic reality of wildlife trade.( ).

High rates of MRSA transmission found between nursing home residents, healthcare workers ::: Healthcare workers frequently contaminate their gloves and gowns during every day care of nursing homes residents with drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA, according to a new study. ( ).

Spinning a new version of spider silk ::: After years of research decoding the complex structure and production of spider silk, researchers have now succeeded in producing samples of this exceptionally strong and resilient material in the laboratory. The new development could lead to a variety of biomedical materials — from sutures to scaffolding for organ replacements — made from synthesized silk with properties specifically tuned for their intended uses.( ).

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r in hepatitis C: Indication of added benefit in certain patients::: The new drug combination showed an advantage in three of a total of 16 patient groups, particularly regarding virologic response. The extent of added benefit remains unclear, however. ( ).

Astronomy: Link between mergers and supermassive black holes with relativistic jets::: In the most extensive survey of its kind ever conducted, a team of scientists have found an unambiguous link between the presence of supermassive black holes that power high-speed, radio-signal-emitting jets and the merger history of their host galaxies. The results lend significant weight to the case for jets being the result of merging black holes.( ).

Study cites federal policy as key to primary care access and nurse practitioner workforce development ::: With demand for primary care expected to increase sharply over the next five years– due to passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), population growth and aging – the role of advanced-practice nurses or nurse practitioners (NPs) is also increasing. But a new study illustrates how federal policies influence the NP workforce and practice, and how misalignment of those policies with state mandates can affect workforce supply and patient access to care. ( ).

Treatment for genetically caused emphysema effective, experts say ::: A landmark clinical study provides convincing evidence that a frequently overlooked therapy for genetically-caused emphysema is effective and slows the progression of lung disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited disorder that can cause emphysema even without exposure to tobacco smoke. ( ).

Not making enough money? Check your attitude ::: Holding cynical beliefs about others may have a negative effect on your income according to research using survey data from the United States and Europe. The reviews looked at cynicism (as measured by responses to a questionnaire) in national surveys of Americans (1,146 and 497 participants respectively) and income level at a later date. In both studies, a high level of cynicism was associated with lower income.( ).

Roadside air can be more charged than under a high-voltage power line ::: More charged particles in urban environments come from motor vehicle emissions than anything else which makes living beside a busy road with lots of diesel-driven vehicles worse for your health than living under high voltage power lines, experts say. ( ).

A sight for sore eyes: Visually training medical students to better identify melanomas ::: New research is helping to improve the ability of medical students and health professionals to detect early forms of skin cancer. The study concludes that traditional teaching methods can be improved substantially by training health professionals to put a greater focus on the visual aspects of the task, as opposed to an emphasis on learning the physiology and anatomy of skin lesions. ( ).

Super-efficient light-based computers ::: Infrared light passes through silicon the way visible light passes through glass. Just as a prism bends visible light to reveal the rainbow, different silicon structures can bend infrared light in useful ways. It is theoretically possible to replace wires with silicon fibers. Why bother: to transmit lots more data while using lots less energy. ( ).

Large but unexplained variations in paracetamol-induced liver failure among European countries ::: A 50-fold between-country difference in rates of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure that leads to liver transplant has been revealed by a study that compared patient data from seven countries at the request of the European Medicines Agency: France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and the UK. ( ).

Unexpected brain structures tied to creativity, and to stifling it ::: A surprising link has been found between creative problem-solving and heightened activity in the cerebellum, a structure located in the back of the brain and more typically thought of as the body's movement-coordination center.( ).

Birds, not just mammals, copy yawns ::: Have you ever caught yourself yawning right after someone else did? The same happens to budgies. Biologists have just noted that contagious yawning also occurs between members of a bird species. Contagious yawning was previously thought only to occur between humans, domestic dogs, chimpanzees and a type of rodent aptly called the high-yawning Sprague-Dawley rat. ( ).

Innovative components pave way for cheaper wind energy ::: Wind turbines began cropping up across the landscapes of Spain and Germany in the 1990s'. These two countries have the highest wind energy production in the EU. But according to the Global Wind Energy Council, the global installed power capacity in Europe — which is 134,007 MW — has been surpassed by Asia with 141,964 MW, at the end of 2014. The wind power industry is arguably the most mature — and fastest developing — among renewable energies. But, there is still considerable room for improvement to compete with other sources of electricity.( ).

Big Bang aftermath: Ancient stars from birth of the universe ::: Astronomers have discovered three "cosmic Methusalems" from the earliest years of the universe. These unusual stars are about 13 billion years old and experts assign them to the first generations of stars after the "dark ages." The chemical qualities of these extremely rare stellar bodies enable new insights into the events that must have led to the origins of the stars. The first stars have been assumed to be high-mass and to shine especially brightly. However, the latest observations point to hitherto unknown phenomena in the young universe, allowing for the emergence of much smaller stars.( ).

Importance of using the right rubber for the job ::: Researchers have discovered that when it comes to rubbers, textured surfaces, and reproduction, more fluid formulations have greater reliability than those that are thick and sticky. ( ).

Extreme global warming of Cretaceous period punctuated with significant global cooling ::: Scientists have reconstructed the climatic development of the Arctic Ocean during the Cretaceous period, 145 to 66 million years ago. At that time the poles were devoid of ice and average temperatures of up to 35 degrees Celsius prevailed in the oceans. Yet new research shows there was a severe cold snap during the geological age known for its extreme greenhouse climate. What sparked the abrupt global cooling? ( ).

Underwater robot swarms use collective cognition to perform tasks ::: Scientists have created underwater robot swarms that function like schools of fish, exchanging information to monitor the environment, searching, maintaining, exploring and harvesting resources in underwater habitats. The project developed autonomous robots that interact with each other and exchange information, resulting in a cognitive system that is aware of its environment. ( ).

Seeing the action: Novel device images minute forces, actions involved in cell membrane hemifusion ::: Researchers have developed a novel device to image the minute forces and actions involved in cell membrane hemifusion. To capture real time data on the behavior of cell membranes during hemifusion, the researchers pressed together two supported lipid bilayers on the opposing surfaces of the SFA. These bilayers consisted of lipid domains — collections of lipids that in non-fusion circumstances are organized in more or less regularly occurring or mixed arrangements within the cell membrane.( ).

A chip placed under the skin for more precise medicine ::: It's only a centimeter long, it's placed under your skin, it's powered by a patch on the surface of your skin and it communicates with your mobile phone. The new biosensor chip is capable of simultaneously monitoring the concentration of a number of molecules, such as glucose and cholesterol, and certain drugs. ( ).

Cocaine addiction, craving and relapse ::: One of the major challenges of cocaine addiction is the high rate of relapse after periods of withdrawal and abstinence. But new research reveals that changes in our DNA during drug withdrawal may offer promising ways of developing more effective treatments for addiction. Withdrawal from drug use results in reprogramming of the genes in the brain that lead to addictive personality, say researchers.( ).

Study links better 'good cholesterol' function with lower risk of later heart disease ::: HDL, the 'good cholesterol' helps remove fat from artery walls, reversing the process that leads to heart disease. Yet recent drug trials and genetic studies suggest that pushing HDL levels higher doesn't reduce the risk of heart disease. Now, an epidemiological study shows that a person's HDL function — the efficiency of HDL molecules at removing cholesterol — may be a better measure of coronary heart disease risk and target for heart-protecting drugs.( ).

Investigational immunotherapy treatment shows durable response in patients with metastatic melanoma ::: Advanced-stage melanoma patients have significant improvement in durable response rate when treated with a genetically-modified form of a herpes virus, whose native form causes the common cold sore, new research shows.( ).

Changing diagnosis codes will challenge emergency medicine ::: Emergency medicine faces special challenges during this fall's changeover in how medical diagnoses are coded. Nearly a quarter of all ER clinical encounters could pose difficulties, authors of a new report state. ( ).

Future vaccine may help lower blood pressure long-term ::: A DNA vaccine helped lower blood pressure for up to six months, reduced tissue damage to the heart and blood vessels associated with hypertension in rats, investigators report. If future research shows the vaccine is a viable treatment option in humans, it could improve high blood pressure levels. ( ).

Moderate drinking in later years may damage heart ::: Moderate to heavy alcohol intake later in life may be associated with subtle changes in the structure and efficiency of the heart. Women may be particularly vulnerable to negative cardiac effects of alcohol at moderate to higher levels of consumption.( ).

Study identifies possible role for carbon monoxide in treating hemorrhagic stroke ::: Carbon monoxide is typically associated with brain injury and neurological symptoms. But a new study suggests that when administered in small, carefully controlled amounts, CO may actually protect the brain from damage following hemorrhagic stroke. ( ).

Breakthrough measures Parkinson's progression in brain ::: A biomarker that shows the progression of Parkinson's disease in the brain has been identified by researchers, opening the door to better diagnosis and treatment of the degenerative disease.( ).

Supernovas help 'clean' galaxies ::: Astronomers have found that the black holes located at the cores of galaxies launch fountains of charged particles, which can stir up gas throughout the galaxy and temporarily interrupt star formation. But unless something intervenes, the gas will eventually cool and start forming stars again. ( ).

Study connects credit default swaps to mortgage delinquencies ::: The first empirical investigation has been released by investigators connecting credit default swaps to mortgage defaults that helped lead to the 2007-2008 financial crisis. ( ).

How racial stereotypes impact the way we communicate ::: Racial stereotypes and expectations can impact the way we communicate and understand others, according to research.The new study highlights how non-verbal 'social cues' — such as photographs of Chinese Canadians – can affect how we comprehend speech. ( ).

On-demand X-rays at synchrotron light sources::: Researchers have developed an 'X-rays on demand' technique in which ALS users can have access to the X-ray beams they want without affecting beams for other users.( ).

Study suggests using excess stress to kill therapy resistant breast cancer ::: Maxing out the inherently stressed nature of treatment-resistant breast cancer cells thwarts their adaptive ability to evolve genetic workarounds to treatment, according to a study. Looking at tumor progression as essentially an evolutionary process, researchers highlight the feasibility of maximizing cell stress by inhibiting adaptive pathways to cause cell death.( ).

Astrophysicist provides new fluid dynamics insights ::: New calculations by a theoretical astrophysicist provide tools that open a door to exploring the history of events in astrophysical flows and in plasma fusion devices.( ).

New foam technology to lead advances in medical devices and protective equipment ::: A unique, high performance foam has been developed that can be used to make safer athletic gear and medical equipment, among other things. The developers anticipate an immediate benefit to the medical device and protective equipment industries while the collaborative project for the development of the new prosthetic sock is underway.( ).

New chip makes testing for antibiotic-resistant bacteria faster, easier ::: We live in fear of 'superbugs': infectious bacteria that don't respond to treatment by antibiotics, and can turn a routine hospital stay into a nightmare. Now, researchers have designed a diagnostic chip to reduce testing time of antibiotics from days to one hour, allowing doctors to pick the right antibiotic the first time.( ).

Fertilization regimen reduces environmental impact of landscape palms ::: Areca palms can be grown in a native sand soil or in a calcareous fill soil without supplemental phosphorus, and with no nitrogen applied during the rainy summer months (June-September) in southern Florida. This study also demonstrated that the negative effects caused by high nitrogen:potassium ratio turf fertilizers can be mitigated by adding a controlled release palm fertilizer that contains no nitrogen or potassium. ( ).

Advance in quantum error correction ::: Protocol corrects virtually all errors in quantum memory, but requires little measure of quantum states. ( ).

Babies can think before they can speak ::: Analogical ability — the ability to see common relations between objects, events or ideas — is a key skill that underlies human intelligence and differentiates humans from other apes. While there is considerable evidence that preschoolers can learn abstract relations, it remains an open question whether infants can as well. In a new study, researchers found infants are capable of learning the abstract relations of same and different after only a few examples.( ).

Historian mapping out a new view of the Medieval world ::: Maps show us the way and identify major landmarks – rivers, towns, roads and hills. For centuries, they also offered a perspective on how societies viewed themselves in comparison to the rest of the world. New research looks at maps from the medieval and early-modern Muslim world.( ).

Labor analgesia in low-income countries: Experience from Ghana ::: A program to improve pain control during labor at one of Ghana's largest maternity units greatly increased the use of safe and effective spinal analgesia for women undergoing cesarean section, reports a new article.( ).

Clinical trial reduces stress of cancer caregivers::: A randomized control trial demonstrates an intervention that successfully reduces the stress of caregivers in the context of cancer patients treated with stem cell transplantation. The study enrolled 148 caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (Allo-HSCT) patients.( ).

Honesty can keep companies' stock prices up during hard times ::: Honesty is the best policy, and a new study finds that companies can benefit when they publicly accept the blame for poor performance. Just taking responsibility, however, is not the entire solution, say authors of the report. When companies accepted the blame, they also had to explain how they were going to fix the problem. ( ).

Infusions of donor bone marrow cells help children with inherited skin blistering ::: Promising results from a trial of a new stem-cell based therapy for a rare and debilitating skin condition suggest that the therapy, involving infusions of stem cells, provide pain relief and to reduce the severity of this skin condition for which no cure currently exists.( ).

New findings about mechanisms underlying chronic pain reveal novel therapeutic strategies::: A critical role for a class of cells present in the brain and spinal cord, called microglia, has been discovered for those in pain. Researchers have found microglia to neuron signaling to be crucial in the development of pain hypersensitivity after injury, but also for one of the paradoxical effects morphine and other opioids sometimes produce, called hyperalgesia, which is an increase in pain sensitivity.( ).

A push to open doors to care for the homebound ::: A new study examines a nearly invisible population of shut-ins for ways to treat the infirm, assist the rest. Researchers looked at the community-dwelling Medicare population, which they estimate to be about 2 million people in the United States. They explain that most older adults want to age at home, but with the ability to come and go as they wish. Being homebound means being trapped, unable to leave without considerable help.( ).

Squeezed quantum cats' and 'stable cats' for quantum computers ::: Scientists have reached deep into their bag of tricks to create so-called 'squeezed Schrodinger cats.' These quantum systems could be extremely useful for future technologies. ( ).

New urine test could reduce need for blood samples ::: If you've been to the doctor, you probably know what to do when you're handed a plastic cup and shown to the bathroom. Most patients hand over the sample and give little thought to what happens when it's shipped to the lab for analysis. Researchers have developed a new testing method that they believe will reduce costs, get faster results and lower the volume of urine needed for a sample.( ).

Changes in forest structure affect bees, other pollinators ::: Over the past century, many forests have shifted from open to closed canopies. The change in forest structure could be contributing to declines in pollinator species, especially native bees, according to a new study. ( ).

ER doctors stress need for good communications with police ::: Not surprisingly, differences of opinion arise from time to time over a health care worker's duty to protect patient privacy and the police need to conduct a criminal investigation. A good working relationship with police is therefore essential for the smooth operation of a busy Emergency Department, experts say.( ).

Co-operative tools: Intelligent handheld robots::: Researchers have developed and started studying a novel concept in robotics — intelligent handheld robots.( ).

Genomic data reveals emergence in Africa of drug resistant strain of typhoid ::: The emergence of a novel strain of Typhoid fever in Malawi, Africa has been revealed by scientists. Research suggests that the H58-strain, which is likely to have emerged in Asia approximately thirty years ago, is now rapidly spreading across Africa, where it has been introduced on several separate occasions. A key feature of this strain appears to be its ability to acquire resistance to commonly available antibiotics.( ).

Neuroscientists reveals autism's 'noisy' secret: 3-D simulator reveals inner workings of the autistic brain ::: Strapped into a motion-enabled simulator and wearing 3-D glasses, 36 adolescent volunteers recently experienced what it was like to 'travel' through a field of virtual stars. The experiments provided new and convention-busting data about how sensory stimuli are processed by the brains of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.( ).

Severe ozone depletion avoided ::: We are already reaping the rewards of the Montreal Protocol, researchers say, with the ozone layer in much better shape than it would have been without the UN treaty. Although the Montreal Protocol came into force in 1987 and restricted the use of ozone-depleting substances, atmospheric concentrations of these harmful substances continued to rise as they can survive in the atmosphere for many years. Concentrations peaked in 1993 and have subsequently declined, the researchers say.( ).

Soy supplements don't improve asthma, study concludes ::: Despite previous findings suggesting a link between soy intake and decreased asthma severity, a new placebo-controlled study shows soy supplements do not improve lung function for patients with asthma. The paper highlights the importance of focusing on overall health — not just one food — to manage disease and the importance of performing well-designed studies.( ).

Better fine motor skills with delayed cord clamping ::: The importance of the umbilical cord for both the fetus and for newborn infants was demonstrated by researchers several years ago, in a study that received great international acclaim. In a follow-up study, the researchers have now been able to show an association between delayed cord clamping (DCC) and children's fine motor skills at the age of four years, especially in boys. ( ).

New technique speeds nanoMRI imaging ::: NanoMRI is a scanning technique that produces nondestructive, high-resolution 3-D images of nanoscale objects, and it promises to become a powerful tool for researchers and companies exploring the shape and function of biological materials such as viruses and cells in much the same way as clinical MRI today enables investigation of whole tissues in the human body. ( ).

Where there's a will … well, there's another way::: There’s more than one way to gain a sense of control. The traditional view of a life in control is one in which an individual has taken actions to ensure success in both the near and long terms. “Secondary control,” has been given short shrift in both the scientific literature and the attitudes of Western societies. Secondary control can be described as a mindset in which one accepts and adapts to the fact that much of life can’t be bent to human will. ( ).

Hospice use linked to fewer depressive symptoms for surviving spouses ::: Spouses of patients receiving hospice for three or more days more frequently reported reduced depression symptoms, compared to surviving spouses of patients who did not receive hospice, a new report concludes.( ).

Study finds association between exposure to aflatoxin and gallbladder cancer ::: In a small study in Chile that included patients with gallbladder cancer, exposure to aflatoxin (a toxin produced by mold) was associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer. In Chile, gallbladder cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women. Exposure to aflatoxin, a liver carcinogen, is associated with gallbladder cancer in primates. ( ).

Study examines association of genetic variants with cognitive impairment ::: Individually rare but collectively common intermediate-size copy number variations may be negatively associated with educational attainment, according to a study. Copy number variations (CNVs) are regions of the genome that differ in the number of segments of DNA. ( ).

Subclinical hyperthyroidism associated with an increased risk of hip and other fractures ::: In an analysis that included more than 70,000 participants from 13 studies, subclinical hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk for hip and other fractures including spine. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in a person without clinical symptoms and normal thyroid hormone concentrations on blood tests.( ).

New kind of wood chip: Biodegradable computer chips made from wood ::: Portable electronics — typically made of non-renewable, non-biodegradable and potentially toxic materials — are discarded at an alarming rate in consumers' pursuit of the next best electronic gadget. In an effort to alleviate the environmental burden of electronic devices, scientists have develop a surprising solution: a semiconductor chip made almost entirely of wood. ( ).

Starved for fire, Wisconsin's pine barrens disappear ::: A century spent treating wildfires as emergencies to be stamped out may have cost Central Wisconsin a natural setting that was common and thriving before the state was settled. ( ).

Who needs water to assemble DNA? Non-aqueous solvent supports DNA nanotechnology::: Researchers have now shown that they can assemble DNA nanostructures in a solvent containing no water. They also discovered that adding a small amount of water to their solvent increases the assembly rate and provides a new means for controlling the process. The solvent may also facilitate the production of more complex structures by reducing the problem of DNA becoming trapped in unintended structures. ( ).

Tiny heart, big promise: Understanding how cells become coronary vessels may lead to advances in repairing heart damage ::: Studying zebrafish, investigators have discovered a new source for cells that can develop into coronary vessels and have identified the signaling protein, a chemokine called CXCL12, which guides this process.( ).

Monitoring magnetospheres: Debunking theory behind massive stars ::: Students researching magnetic, massive stars, have uncovered questions concerning the behavior of plasma within their magnetospheres.( ).

Nanotechnology identifies brain tumor types through MRI 'virtual biopsy' in animal studies::: A tiny drug-delivery system has been invented that can identify cancer cell types in the brain through 'virtual biopsies' and then attack the molecular structure of the disease. The results could be used to deliver nano-scale drugs that can distinguish and fight tumor cells in the brain without resorting to surgery, the authors say. ( ).

How DNA is organized in our cells ::: A critical role for two proteins in chromatin structure has been uncovered by researchers. Their breakthrough helps explain how DNA is organized in our cells. This discovery could lead to a better understanding of what causes certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma.( ).

Researchers solve another piece of the puzzle how forests can effect our climate ::: A first global scale study has estimated how forest emitted compounds affecting cloud seeds via formation of low-volatility vapors. According to the latest projections, terrestrial vegetation emits several million tons of extremely low-volatility organic compounds per year to the atmosphere. These oxidation products of compounds such as monoterpenes results in an increase of condensing vapors that can further form cloud condensation nuclei over the continents and thus has an influence on the cloud formation. ( ).

What is the most humane way to kill a cane toad? ::: Like many pests, cane toads are killed in their thousands in Australia every year, especially by community-based 'toad-busting' groups. New research has now revealed the most humane way to do it.( ).

Therapy-resistant breast cancer mechanism revealed ::: A cluster of defined, non-coding RNAs are mechanistically involved in endocrine therapy resistance in human breast cancer cells, new research has revealed. Furthermore, resveratrol, a kind of polyphenol, was found to repress these RNAs and inhibit the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells which had acquired resistance. ( ).

Nearly indestructible virus yields tool to treat diseases ::: By unlocking the secrets of a bizarre virus that survives in nearly boiling acid, scientists have found a blueprint for battling human disease using DNA clad in near-indestructible armor. ( ).

Evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet ::: A new light has been shed on the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. It shows for the first time that ice rises (pinning points that keep the floating parts of ice sheets in place) are formed during the transition between glacial and interglacial periods, which significantly slows down the response of the ice sheet to climate change. ( ).

How will Congressmen vote? Just look at their social circles, study finds ::: US Congress members' social circles are more important in how they vote than their liberal or conservative beliefs or constituents' opinions, according to a new model of voting behavior.( ).

Smartphone app predicts GPA ::: If you're a college student wondering how your study and party habits will affect your GPA, wonder no longer. Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have built the first app that automatically predicts college students' grade point average based on their smartphone data.( ).

Climate change debate fueled by 'echo chambers,' new study finds ::: A new study demonstrates the highly contentious debate on climate change is fueled in part by how information flows throughout policy networks. Researchers found that 'echo chambers' — social network structures where individuals with the same viewpoint share information with each other — may help explain why, despite a well-documented scientific consensus on the causes of global changes in climate, half of US senators voted earlier this year against an amendment affirming that climate change is human-induced.( ).

Study identifies Ebola virus's Achilles' heel ::: The molecular "lock" that the deadly Ebola virus must pick to gain entry to cells has been identified by researchers. The findings, made in mice, suggest that drugs blocking entry to this lock could protect against Ebola infection.( ).

Appropriate duration of dual antiplatelet therapy still unclear ::: A systematic review of published evidence does little to clarify the appropriate duration of dual antiplatelet therapy following drug eluting stent placement. The evidence suggests that longer duration therapy decreases the risk for myocardial infarction, but increases the risk for major bleeding events, and may provide a slight increase in mortality.( ).

Ovarian cancer-specific markers set the stage for early diagnosis, personalized treatments ::: Six mRNA isoforms (bits of genetic material) produced by ovarian cancer cells but not normal cells have been identified byscientists, opening up the possibility that they could be used to diagnose early-stage ovarian cancer. What's more, several of the mRNA isoforms code for unique proteins that could be targeted with new therapeutics. ( ).

New way of preventing diabetes-associated blindness ::: Reporting on their study with lab-grown human cells, researchers say that blocking a second blood vessel growth protein, along with one that is already well-known, could offer a new way to treat and prevent a blinding eye disease caused by diabetes.( ).

Patterns of brain activity reorganize visual perception during eye movements ::: Oscillations of activity observed in the brain could have a role in resetting the sensitivity of neurons after eye movements. Further results suggest these waves could also have a role in supporting the brain's representation of space.( ).

Frailer older patients at higher risk of readmission or death after discharge from hospital ::: Frailer older patients are at higher risk of readmission to hospital or death within 30 days after discharge from a general internal medicine ward, but health care professionals can assess who is at risk using the Clinical Frailty Scale, according to a study.( ).

Location matters in the lowland Amazon ::: You know the old saying: Location, location, location? It turns out that it applies to the Amazon rainforest, too. New work illustrates a hidden tapestry of chemical variation across the lowland Peruvian Amazon, with plants in different areas producing an array of chemicals that changes across the region's topography.( ).

Special fats proven essential for brain growth::: Certain special fats found in blood are essential for human brain growth and function, new research suggests. New published studies show that mutations in the protein Mfsd2a causes impaired brain development in humans. Mfsd2a is the transporter in the brain for a special type of fat called lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) — composed of essential fatty acids like omega-3.( ).

Climate engineering may save coral reefs, study shows ::: Mass coral bleaching, which can lead to coral mortality, is predicted to occur far more frequently over the coming decades, due to the stress exerted by higher seawater temperatures. Geoengineering of the climate may be the only way to save coral reefs from mass bleaching, according to new research.( ).

Pain sensing' gene discovery could help in development of new methods of pain relief ::: A gene essential to the production of pain-sensing neurons in humans has been identified by an international team of researchers. The discovery could have implications for the development of new methods of pain relief.( ).

De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome revealed ::: The most complete haploid-resolved diploid genome sequence has been revealed by scientists based on de novo assembly with NGS technology. The pipeline developed lays the foundation for de novo assembly of genomes with high levels of heterozygosity, the researchers say.( ).

Complex signaling between blood, stem cells controls regeneration in fly gut ::: Having a healthy gut may well depend on maintaining a complex signaling dance between immune cells and the stem cells that line the intestine. Scientists report significant new insight into how these interactions control intestinal regeneration after an infection. It's a dance that ensures repair after a challenge, but that also goes awry in aging fruit flies. The work offers important new clues into possible causes of age-related human maladies, including IBS and colorectal cancer. ( ).

Team pinpoints genes that make plant stem cells, revealing origin of beefsteak tomatoes ::: A team of scientists has identified a set of genes that control stem cell production in the tomato. Mutations in these genes explain the origin of mammoth beefsteak tomatoes. More importantly, the research suggests how breeders can optimize fruit size in potentially any fruit-bearing crop. ( ).

Fine-tuned molecular orientation is key to more efficient solar cells ::: Polymer solar cells are a hot area of research due to both their strong future potential and the significant challenges they pose. It is believed that thanks to lower production costs, they could become a viable alternative to conventional solar cells with silicon substrates when they achieve a power conversion efficiency–a measure that indicates how much electricity they can generate from a given amount of sunlight–of between 10 and 15 percent. Now, using carefully designed materials and an "inverted" architecture, a team of scientists has achieved efficiency of 10 percent, bringing these cells close to the threshold of commercial viability.( ).

Researchers find the 'key' to quantum network solution ::: Scientists have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. They have developed a protocol to achieve key-rates at metropolitan distances at three orders-of-magnitude higher than previously. ( ).

Researchers unveil new gene subgroup in prostate cancer ::: Prostate cancer researchers have drawn a molecular portrait that provides the first complete picture of localized, multi-focal disease within the prostate and also unveils a new gene subgroup driving it.( ).

Removing mutant p53 significantly regresses tumors, improves cancer survival ::: For two decades cancer researchers have looked unsuccessfully for ways to develop compounds to restore the function of mutant p53 proteins. Now a team of researchers has discovered that eliminating the abnormally stabilized mutant p53 protein in cancer in vivo has positive therapeutic effects, showing that tumors regress significantly and survival increases.( ).

One step closer to a single-molecule device ::: A new technique to create a single-molecule diode has been developed by scientists, and, in doing so, they have developed molecular diodes that perform 50 times better than all prior designs. This research group is the first to develop a single-molecule diode that may have real-world technological applications for nanoscale devices. ( ).

DNA double helix does double duty in assembling arrays of nanoparticles ::: In a new twist on the use of DNA in nanoscale construction, scientists put synthetic strands of the biological material to work in two ways: They used ropelike configurations of the DNA double helix to form a rigid geometrical framework, and added dangling pieces of single-stranded DNA to glue nanoparticles in place. ( ).

Nano-capsules designed for diagnosing malignant tumors ::: Researchers have developed adaptable nano-capsules that can help in the diagnosis of glioblastoma cells — a highly invasive form of brain tumor.( ).

Hubble revisits tangled NGC 6240 ::: NGC 6240 lies 400 million light-years away in the constellation of Ophiuchus (The Serpent Holder). This galaxy has an elongated shape with branching wisps, loops and tails. This mess of gas, dust and stars bears more than a passing resemblance to a butterfly and a lobster. New research is untangling the reasons for its odd shape. ( ).

Plant extracts offer hope against diabetes, cancer ::: Diabetes is the fastest growing metabolic disease in the world. A new study has shown that traditional Aboriginal and Indian plant extracts could be used to manage the disease and may also have potential use in cancer treatment. ( ).

Laser technique for low-cost self-assembly of nanostructures ::: A low-cost technique that holds promise for a range of scientific and technological applications has been developed byscientists. They have combined laser printing and capillary force to build complex, self-assembling microstructures using a technique called laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly (LPCS). ( ).

Table-top extreme UV laser system heralds imaging at the nanoscale ::: A new way to generate bright beams of coherent extreme UV radiation using a table-top setup has been developed byscientists. This could be used to produce high resolution images of tiny structures at the nanoscale.( ).

Radio telescope: Source of mystery signals at the dish ::: Everyone likes solving a mystery, and the hunt for the source of strange signals detected by Australia's Parkes radio telescope is a classic. Although how "aliens" became involved in the story is more of a media mystery than a scientific one. But first to those strange signals: fast radio bursts (FRBs). The source of these powerful, millisecond bursts is unknown but we're getting closer to understanding them. ( ).

Customizable female footware based on smart materials could prevent some of the most common foot problems ::: A new adjustable female shoe based on a new memory shape composite of leather and Nitinol material, is now available. The new material allows fitting the shoe to the foot shape, after obtaining anthropometric measurements through the Shopintantshoe portable scanner and modifying it with the “Shoptool”, a machine that completes the process directly in the shop.( ).

Scientists mix matter and anti-matter to resolve decade-old proton puzzle ::: Nuclear physicists have used two different methods to measure the proton's electric form factor. But the deeper that they probe inside the proton, the more the results from these two different methods disagree. Eventually, the measurements provided by one method amount to about five times the quantity yielded by the other. This huge discrepancy is much larger than the experimental uncertainty in the measurements. A new result has allowed researchers to determine the reason behind a large discrepancy in the data between two different methods used to measure the proton’s electric form factor.( ).

Can you see what I hear? Blind human echolocators use visual areas of the brain ::: Certain blind individuals have the ability to use echoes from tongue or finger clicks to recognize objects in the distance, and use echolocation as a replacement for vision. Research shows echolocation in blind individuals is a full form of sensory substitution, and that blind echolocation experts recruit regions of the brain normally associated with visual perception when making echo-based assessments of objects.( ).

Earthquakes prove to be an unexpected help in interpreting brain activity of very premature babies ::: Researchers have created a "brainstorm barometer" that allows computers to calculate the brain functions of very premature babies during their first hours of life. The new research method is based on the hypothesis that the brainstorms generated by the billions of neurons inside a baby's head are governed by the same rules as other massive natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, forest fires or snow avalanches.( ).

Biodiversity: Eleven new species come to light in Madagascar ::: Madagascar is home to extraordinary biodiversity, but in the past few decades, the island's forests and associated biodiversity have been under greater attack than ever. Rapid deforestation is affecting the biotopes of hundreds of species, including the panther chameleon, a species with spectacular intra-specific colour variation. A new study reveals that this charismatic reptilian species, which is only found in Madagascar, is actually composed of eleven different species.( ).

Revolutionary therapeutic dental adhesives with the aptitude to remineralize the resin-dentine bonding interface through biomimetic processes ::: Dental health researchers report that clinical minimally invasive treatments require the elimination of dental caries-infected tissues in order to stop the progression of bacteria to the pulpal chamber and maximize the reparative potential of the remaining partially demineralized tissues.( ).

Rates of re-hospitalization for patients with traumatic brain injury higher than previously reported ::: A new, study shows that rates of hospital readmission following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are greater than other chronic diseases and injuries and are higher than previously reported. ( ).

Depression associated with 5-fold increased mortality risk in heart failure patients ::: Moderate to severe depression is associated with a 5-fold increased risk of all cause mortality in patients with heart failure, according to research. The results show that risk was independent of comorbidities and severity of heart failure. Patients who were not depressed had an 80% lower mortality risk.( ).

Cognitive impairment predicts worse outcome in heart failure ::: Cognitive impairment predicts worse outcome in elderly heart failure patients, reveals research. Patients with cognitive impairment had a 7.5 times greater risk of call cause death and heart failure readmission. Heart failure patients with cognitive impairment may get progressively worse at adhering to medications, leading to poorer prognosis, the researchers say.( ).

36-percent increase in pediatric patients treated with proton therapy, new survey shows::: Results from an American survey indicate a steady increase in the number of pediatric patients who are being treated with proton radiation therapy for cancerous and non-cancerous tumors. Based on a survey of all proton therapy centers in the United States, the number of pediatric patients treated with proton therapy grew to 722 in 2013, a 36-percent increase from the 465 patients treated in 2010. ( ).

Obesity, mood disorders increase peripartum cardiomyopathy risk ::: Anxiety, depression and bipolar disorder doubles the risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy during childbirth, while obesity leads to a 1.7-fold increase, researchers report. Women with common pregnancy-related symptoms such as shortness of breath and leg swelling plus five PPCM risk factors could benefit from screening, the experts say. ( ).

Parents are integral in stopping rise as teen e-cigarette usage triples ::: Though many think e-cigarettes are helping to reduce the number of smokers in the US, research is showing the opposite is true when it comes to teens. Experts recently released data showing that in just one year the number of middle and high school students using e-cigarettes has tripled.( ).

Deciphering clues to prehistoric climate changes locked in cave deposits ::: It turns out that the steady dripping of water deep underground can reveal a surprising amount of information about the constantly changing cycles of heat and cold, precipitation and drought in the turbulent atmosphere above. The analysis of a stalagmite from a cave in north east India can detect the link between El Nino conditions in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian monsoon, a new study has found.( ).

DNA samples from fungi collections provide key to mushroom 'tree of life' ::: Genetic material from fungi collections helped a team of researchers resolve the mushroom 'tree of life,' a map of the relationships between key mushroom species and their evolutionary history that scientists have struggled to piece together for more than 200 years.( ).

New research leads to FDA approval of first drug to treat radiation sickness ::: New research has led to FDA approval of the use of a drug to treat the effects of radiation exposure following a nuclear incident. The drug, Neupogen, is the first ever approved for the treatment of acute radiation injury.( ).

Visualizing how radiation bombardment boosts superconductivity ::: A new study shows how heavy-ion induced atomic-scale defects in iron-based superconductors "pin" potentially disruptive quantum vortices, enabling high currents to flow unimpeded. The study opens a new way forward for designing and understanding superconductors that can operate in demanding high-current, high magnetic field applications, such as zero-energy-loss power transmission lines and energy-generating turbines.( ).

Beyond average: New platforms genetically barcode tens of thousands of cells at a time ::: Two separate research teams have developed high-throughput techniques to quickly, easily and inexpensively give every individual cell in a sample a unique genetic barcode. This allows scientists to analyze complex tissues by profiling each individual cell–no averaging required. ( ).

Auroras on Mars ::: One day, when humans go to Mars, they might find that, occasionally, the Red Planet has green skies. NASA's MAVEN spacecraft has detected evidence of widespread auroras in Mars's northern hemisphere. Unlike Earth, Mars does not have a global magnetic field that envelops the entire planet. Instead, Mars has umbrella-shaped magnetic fields that sprout out of the ground like mushrooms, here and there, but mainly in the southern hemisphere. These umbrellas are remnants of an ancient global field that decayed billions of years ago. ( ).

Mars rover's laser-zapping instrument gets sharper vision ::: Tests on Mars have confirmed success of a repair to the autonomous focusing capability of the Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. ( ).

Curiosity rover adjusts route up Martian mountain ::: NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has just climbed a hill to approach an alternative site for investigating a geological boundary, after a comparable site proved hard to reach.( ).

Deep web search' may help scientists ::: When you do a simple Web search on a topic, the results that pop up aren't the whole story. The Internet contains a vast trove of information — sometimes called the "Deep Web" — that isn't indexed by search engines: information that would be useful for tracking criminals, terrorist activities, sex trafficking and the spread of diseases. Scientists could also use it to search for images and data from spacecraft.( ).

Birds 'weigh' peanuts and choose heavier ones::: Mexican Jays (Aphelocoma wollweberi) distinguish between heavier and lighter peanuts without opening the nuts. The birds do it by shaking the nuts in their beaks, which allows them to 'feel' nut heaviness and to listen to sounds produced by peanuts during handling.( ).

From chicken to dinosaur: Scientists experimentally 'reverse evolution' of perching toe ::: A unique adaptation in the foot of birds is the presence of a thumb-like opposable toe, which allows them to grasp and perch. However, in their dinosaur ancestors, this toe was small and non- opposable, and did not even touch the ground, resembling the dewclaws of dogs and cats. Remarkably, the embryonic development of birds provides a parallel of this evolutionary history: The toe starts out like their dinosaur ancestors, but then its base (the metatarsal) becomes twisted, making it opposable. ( ).

Vaccines developed for H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza strains ::: Researchers have developed vaccines for H5N1 and H7N9, two new strains of avian influenza that can be transmitted from poultry to humans. The strains have led to the culling of millions of commercial chickens and turkeys as well as the death of hundreds of people.( ).

How meteorological partnership between US, Cuba was created over 20 years ::: The two-decade-long process to form an active meteorological partnership between the United States and Cuba has been described in a new article. While the U.S. and Cuba have shared meteorological information and data relating to hurricanes and other tropical storms starting as early as the mid-1800's, this is the first time a partnership of this level has been created; it included the shipping and installation of sensitive GPS monitoring equipment, something that would normally not be allowed by either government. ( ).

Scientists create mice with a major genetic cause of ALS, frontotemporal dementia ::: A novel mouse has been developed that exhibits the symptoms and neurodegeneration associated with the most common genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), both of which are caused by a mutation in the a gene called C9ORF72.( ).

Proton therapy has fewer side effects in esophageal cancer patients ::: New research has found that esophageal cancer patients treated with proton therapy experienced significantly less toxic side effects, including nausea, blood abnormalities and loss of appetite, than patients treated with older radiation therapies. ( ).

The Viking's grave and the sunken ship: New photogrammetry method transforms archaeological sites ::: Mapping archaeological digs takes plenty of time and a lot of measuring, photographing, drawing and note taking. Now, most of this work can be done with a technique called photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is a method that uses two-dimensional images of an archaeological find to construct a 3D model. ( ).

New computational technique advances color 3D printing process ::: A technique has been developed that enables hydrographic printing, a widely used industrial method for transferring color inks on a thin film to the surface of 3D objects, to color these surfaces with the most precise alignment ever attained. This new computational method, which simulates the printing process and predicts color film distortion during hydrographic immersion, generates a colored film that guarantees exact alignment of the surface textures to the object.( ).

Plant biosecurity course combats wheat blast::: Wheat blast, an emerging disease that threatens worldwide food security, is the focus of a plant biosecurity course at an American university. The course is designed to help participants learn how to contain and exclude a plant pathogen. ( ).

Robot masters new skills through trial and error ::: Researchers have developed algorithms that enable robots to learn motor tasks through trial and error using a process that more closely approximates the way humans learn, marking a major milestone in the field of artificial intelligence.( ).

Best and safest blood pressure treatments in kidney, diabetes patients compiled ::: The first definitive summary of the best and safest blood pressure lowering treatments for kidney disease and diabetes patients has been compiled by clinicians. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease around the world, and people often have both. Chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes always affects both kidneys and generally gets worse over time, often leading to kidney failure requiring dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant. ( ).

Study uses farm data to aid in slowing evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds ::: Although researchers and industry personnel have made recommendations to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, an understanding of the patterns and causes of the resistance has been limited. A recently published study looking at glyphosate-resistant waterhemp is providing valuable evidence that points to management practices as the driving force behind herbicide resistance, and that herbicide mixing, as opposed to herbicide rotation, is the most effective tool in managing resistance. ( ).

An evolutionary heads-up: The brain size advantage ::: Animals with large brains are considered to be more intelligent and more successful than those with smaller brains. Researchers have now provided the first experimental evidence that large brains provide an evolutionary advantage. Large-brained female fish have a higher survival rate than those with small brains when faced with a predator, although brain size surprisingly did not influence male survival.( ).

Ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir: Hint of added benefit in further patient group ::: Documents subsequently submitted by the manufacturer show an advantage in sustained virologic response also for hepatitis C infection of genotype 1 with HIV coinfection without cirrhosis of the liver, reviewers report.( ).

Physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents ::: Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner.( ).

Estuaries protect Dungeness crabs from deadly parasites ::: Parasitic worms can pose a serious threat to the Dungeness crab, a commercially important fishery species found along the west coast of North America. The worms are thought to have caused or contributed to the crash of the crab fishery of central California during the last half century. New research shows that infected crabs can rid themselves of parasites by moving into the less salty water of estuaries. Low salinity kills the worms creating a parasite refuge for the crabs. ( ).

Go fish! Ancient birds evolved specialist diving adaptations ::: A new study of some primitive birds from the Cretaceous shows how several separate lineages evolved adaptations for diving. Living at the same time as the dinosaurs, Hesperornithiform bird fossils have been found in North America, Europe and Asia in rocks 65-95 million years old. This research shows that separate lineages became progressively more adept at diving into water to catch fishes, like modern day loons and grebes.( ).

How a schizophrenia risk gene affects the brain::: Brain imaging studies have already revealed that mental illnesses involve alterations in both the structure and connectivity of the brain. Scientists have now, for the first time, shown how the disruption of a key gene involved in mental illness impacts on the brain.( ).

From reverberating chaos to concert halls, 'good acoustics' is culturally subjective ::: Play a flute in Carnegie Hall, and the tone will resonate and fill the space. Play that same flute in the Grand Canyon, and the sound waves will crash against the rock walls, folding back in sonic chaos. The disparity is clear – to the modern listener, the instrument belongs in an auditorium. The response of audiences and performers to acoustic characteristics is a function of their worldview, and it is as fluid as the environment they inhabit, researchers say.( ).

Enhancing knowledge crucial to improving energy-saving behaviors, study shows ::: Increasing public knowledge and understanding about energy issues is vital if improved energy-saving behaviors are to be encouraged among individuals and organizations, a study suggests. ( ).

Faster heart rate linked to diabetes risk ::: An association between resting heart rate and diabetes suggests that heart rate measures could identify individuals with a higher future risk of diabetes, according to an international team of researchers. ( ).

Anticipating temptation may reduce unethical behavior, research finds ::: Ethical dilemmas can present a self-control conflict between pursuing immediate benefits through behaving dishonestly and pursuing long-term benefits through honesty. New research has found that factors that facilitate self-control for other goals can also promote self-behavior. The researchers conclude that identifying a self-control conflict and anticipating a temptation are two necessary preconditions for ethical decision making. ( ).

Breastfeeding protects against environmental pollution ::: Living in a city with a high level of vehicle traffic or close to a steel works means living with two intense sources of environmental pollution. However, a study indicates that the harmful pollution particle matter and nitrogen dioxide disappears in breastfed babies during the first four months of life. According to the results of the research, breastfeeding plays a protective role in the presence of these two atmospheric pollutants. ( ).

3D geological tour of the Guadalquivir basin using Google Earth ::: A research team has developed a tool that allows a 3D journey in ten sites of geological and palaeontological interest in the Guadalquivir basin (Huelva, Spain). In the virtual tour, developed with Google Earth, you can visit and explore treasures of this area, such as records of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, using tablets and smartphones.( ).

New method to map poaching threats ::: Ecologists have developed a new method to better identify where poachers operate in protected areas. Analysing 12 years of ranger-collected data, different types of threats were monitored and recorded, including the commercial hunting of large mammals (elephants, hippos and buffalos), the setting of snares for smaller wildlife, harvesting of timber, illegal grazing, the collection of thatch and other products, and illegal fishing.( ).

The winners and the losers of the California water crisis ::: A new article highlights the widening gap of inequality between the wealthy and the poor of California, specifically in relation to the State's current drought. The problem, it states, is two fold. First, California's water systems are described as "antiquated and dysfunctional" due to the State's reluctance to challenge "historic seniority" of water rights where corporate farmers can water thousands of acres of land at a subsidized federal cost without being required to report their groundwater usage, leaving a number of low-income communities with no water what so ever. Secondly, the authors say that those at the top level of society feel less compelled to change their behaviours when it comes to water conservation. ( ).

Subconscious learning shapes pain responses::: People can be conditioned to associate images with particular pain responses – such as improved tolerance to pain – even when they are not consciously aware of the images, research suggests. ( ).

New mechanism for Alzheimer's disease confirmed ::: Decreased removal of toxic peptides in the brain causes the onset and first clinical signs of Alzheimer's disease, research suggests, rather than overproduction as has previously been assumed. This information can now be used to target specific genes to enhance their function in the brain of elderly or people at risk. ( ).

American Indians disproportionately disciplined at school compared to white students ::: School disciplinary actions handed down to students at Utah public schools disproportionately impact American Indian children over all other ethnicities enrolled in the state's public education system, new research reveals. Although American Indian students comprise the smallest student demographic in Utah, they have the largest percentage of students referred to law enforcement and arrested at school. ( ).

Microfluidic cell-squeezing device opens new possibilities for cell-based vaccines ::: Researchers have shown that they can use a microfluidic cell-squeezing device to introduce specific antigens inside the immune system’s B cells, providing a new approach to developing and implementing antigen-presenting cell vaccines. ( ).

Depressed people may have difficulty following emotional speech ::: Psychoacoustics identifies five basic types of emotional speech: angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral. In order to fully understand what's happening with speech perception, a research team studied how depressed individuals perceive these different kinds of emotional speech in multi-tonal environments. ( ).

Facebook status updates reveal low self-esteem and narcissism ::: People who post Facebook status updates about their romantic partner are more likely to have low self-esteem, while those who brag about diets, exercise, and accomplishments are typically narcissists, according to new research.( ).

Head injuries could result in neurodegenerative disease in rugby union players ::: Until now, the association between head injuries and neurodegenerative disease, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), has predominantly been made with boxers. Now, the first case has been reported showing an association between exposure to head injuries in rugby union players and an increased risk in neurodegenerative disease.( ).

Human stem cell model reveals molecular cues critical to neurovascular unit formation ::: Using human embryonic stem cells, researchers have created a model that allows them to track cellular behavior during the earliest stages of human development in real-time. The model reveals, for the first time, how autonomic neurons and blood vessels come together to form the neurovascular unit.( ).

Supercomputer unlocks secrets of plant cells to pave the way for more resilient crops ::: Scientists have moved a step closer to identifying the nanostructure of cellulose — the basic structural component of plant cell walls. The insights could pave the way for more disease resistant varieties of crops and increase the sustainability of the pulp, paper and fiber industry — one of the main uses of cellulose.( ).

Time is muscle in acute heart failure ::: Urgent diagnosis and treatment in acute heart failure (AHF) has been emphasized for the first time in joint recommendations recently published. This is the first time cardiologists, emergency physicians, intensivists and nurses from Europe and the USA have joined forces to agree a treatment algorithm for patients with AHF.( ).

Raising a glass to the holidays: Research finds extra alcohol sold, consumed on holidays ::: Asking people about what they drink on holidays and other special occasions shows we drink around the equivalent of 12 million more bottles of wine a week than we previously thought in England. Previous surveys on alcohol consumption have not accounted for all the alcohol that is sold. This research appears to have found many of these 'missing units.'( ).

Serengeti Park disappearing ::: A huge wildebeest herd migrates across the open, parched plains. Dust swirls up from the many hooves pounding the ground, and forms a haze over the landscape. The setting sun gives the scene a golden tinge. Serengeti National Park is the symbol of Africa's abundant wildlife. The park as we know it today could be history within a few decades, experts say.( ).

Time to move beyond 'Medieval' cyber security approach, expert says ::: The nation's approach to cyber security has much in common with medieval defense tactics, and that needs to change, says a cyber security expert.( ).

Study on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb ::: The integration of new neurons in the adult brain is a phenomenon more generally compromised in the brains of depressed patients, new research shows. This new work confirms that neurogenesis in the human olfactory bulb is a marginal phenomenon in adults. These findings shed light on the special features of the human brain.( ).

Using healthy skin to identify cancer’s origins: Cancer-associated DNA changes in 25 per cent of normal skin cells ::: Normal skin contains an unexpectedly high number of cancer-associated mutations, according to a study. The findings illuminate the first steps cells take towards becoming a cancer and demonstrate the value of analyzing normal tissue to learn more about the origins of the disease. ( ).

Implantable micro-device to monitor oxygen in glioma to improve treatment outcomes ::: Monitoring oxygen levels in human tumors growing in a mouse brain using EPR oximetry with implantable resonators provides opportunities to evaluate and optimize various strategies being developed to improve oxygen levels in the glioma. ( ).

Accelerating universe? Not so fast ::: Astronomers have found that the type of supernovae commonly used to measure distances in the universe fall into distinct populations not recognized before. The findings have implications for our understanding of how fast the universe has been expanding since the Big Bang. ( ).

Can humans get norovirus from their dogs? ::: Human norovirus may infect our canine companions, according to research. That raises the possibility of dog-to-human transmission, says a veterinarian and first author of a new report. ( ).

Study of processing speed impact on cognitive training ::: Treatment with the modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT) may be affected by processing speed, researchers report. mSMT is a 10-session cognitive intervention protocol shown to improve new learning and memory in individuals with MS. ( ).

What happens underground when a missile or meteor hits ::: Techniques that enable researchers to simulate high-speed missile and meteor impacts into soil and sand have been developed for use in the lab. The techniques allow the researchers to watch what happens underground close-up, in super slow motion. They report that materials like soil and sand actually get stronger when they are struck harder. The research may ultimately lead to better control of earth-penetrating missiles designed to destroy deeply buried targets such as enemy bunkers or weapons stockpiles.( ).

Electrical control of quantum bits in silicon paves the way to large quantum computers ::: Scientists have encoded quantum information in silicon using simple electrical pulses for the first time, bringing the construction of affordable large-scale quantum computers one step closer to reality. ( ).

Psychological testing in the service of disability determination ::: Broader use of standardized psychological testing for applicants submitting disability claims to the US Social Security Administration should improve the accuracy and consistency of disability determinations, says a new report. ( ).

The new cool: Physicist discovers new material set to change cooling industry ::: Refrigeration and air conditioning may become more efficient and environmentally friendly thanks to the patent-pending work of physicists. The team has discovered a breakthrough magnetocaloric material that may change the energy industry, including air conditioning and food refrigeration.( ).

Insulator-to-metal transition of vanadium dioxide ::: When heated to just above room temperature, the electrical conductivity of vanadium dioxide abruptly increases by a factor of 10,000. Unusually large lattice vibrations, which are the oscillations of atoms about their equilibrium positions, stabilize this highly conductive metallic phase. ( ).

Campaign increases mouth and throat cancer screenings among low-income rural Floridians::: Raising awareness of the dangers of mouth and throat cancer increased the number of black men in some of Florida's poorest counties who sought screening for the first time, opening the door to improved survival rates through early detection and treatment, researchers report. ( ).

Findings reveal clues to functioning of mysterious 'mimivirus' ::: Researchers have discovered the structure of a key protein on the surface of an unusually large virus called the mimivirus, aiding efforts to determine its hosts and unknown functions. The mimivirus was initially thought to be a bacterium because it is much larger than most viruses. It was isolated by French scientists in 1992 but wasn't confirmed to be a virus until 2003.( ).

Drug micro-factory engineered to attack tumors ::: A team of investigators has engineered therapeutic cells encapsulated in nanoporous capsules to secrete antitumor molecules from within the tumor.( ).

Bright spots on dwarf planet Ceres ::: The mysterious bright spots on the dwarf planet Ceres are better resolved in a image recently taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft. The images were taken from a distance of 8,400 miles (13,600 kilometers). ( ).

As carbon emissions climb, so too has Earth's capacity to remove CO2 from atmosphere ::: New research confirms that as carbon emissions continue to climb, so too has the Earth's capacity to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ( ).

Graduation' from poverty: Anti-poverty intervention provides sustained boost to incomes and wealth ::: An anti-poverty program tested extensively on three continents has produced sustained gains in individuals' income, wealth, and well-being, according to a study. The program provides very poor people with productive assets, such as livestock, as well as job training, life-skills coaching, and health information. Known as the "Graduation" program, its intention was to examine whether helping the poor in multiple ways simultaneously could be especially effective in fighting poverty. ( ).

Ocean's hidden fertilizer revealed ::: Phosphorus is one of the most common substances on Earth. An essential nutrient for every living organism — humans require approximately 700 milligrams per day — we are rarely concerned about consuming enough of it because it is present in most of the foods we eat. Despite its ubiquity and living organisms' utter dependence on it, we know surprisingly little about how it moves, or cycles, through the ocean environment. ( ).

Gene regulation underlies the evolution of social complexity in bees ::: Explaining the evolution of insect society, with sterile society members displaying extreme levels of altruism, has long been a major scientific challenge, dating back to Charles Darwin's day. A new genomic study of 10 species of bees representing a spectrum of social living — from solitary bees to those in complex, highly social colonies — offers new insights into the genetic changes that accompany the evolution of bee societies. ( ).

Unique social structure of hunter-gatherers explained ::: Sex equality in residential decision-making explains the unique social structure of hunter-gatherers, a new study reveals. ( ).

First fully warm-blooded fish: The opah or moonfish ::: New research has revealed the opah, or moonfish, as the first fully warm-blooded fish that circulates heated blood throughout its body much like mammals and birds, giving it a competitive advantage in the cold ocean depths. ( ).

New mouse model for ALS and frontotemporal dementia gene offers hope for potential therapies ::: A mouse model has been developed that exhibits the neuropathological and behavioral features associated with the most common genetic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which are caused by a mutation in the C9ORF72 gene. The researchers hope that this model will leave to new potential therapies.( ).

Model predicts which delinquent credit card holders will pay ::: A way to accurately predict which delinquent credit card accounts will repay an outstanding balance has been created by researchers. Banks need to know which accounts are worth spending money on — whether sending them to a collection agency, filing a lawsuit, or taking no action whatsoever — based on the likelihood of repayment and the amount they can expect to recover. Having that information would influence the strategy a credit card issuer follows for each account, the authors say. ( ).

Geckos resistant to antibiotics, may pose risk to pet owners, study finds ::: Tokay geckos harbor bacteria that are resistant to a number of antibiotics, making them a health concern for pet owners, according to a study on geckos imported from Indonesia. The research focused on how the geckos respond to antibiotics; the study found that the bacteria from the geckos' intestines–known as enteric bacteria–were resistant to the antibiotics.( ).

Genomics laboratory capability in Liberia supports Ebola virus outbreak response ::: Army scientists working to support the Ebola virus outbreak response in West Africa have established the first genomic surveillance capability in Liberia, enabling them to monitor genetic changes in the virus within one week of sample collection, a new article explains.( ).

Study clarifies best treatments for uncommon kidney cancers ::: A head-to-head comparison of two biologic therapies used to treat a subset of patients with advanced kidney cancers provides much-needed clarity on the preferred treatment for the first line of attack. Research focused on three forms of non-clear cell kidney cancers: metastatic papillary, chromophobe or unclassified. The patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the two approved treatments that are typically used, everolimus or sunitinib, until their tumors progressed.( ).

Growing interest: School-grown vegetables increase salad selection ::: If kids grow vegetables, they're more likely to eat them. A new study shows that when garden grown vegetables were slipped into school salads, kids were over four times as likely to take a salad.( ).

Researchers hone technique for finding signs of life on the Red Planet ::: Astrobiologists want to improve the way unmanned Mars probes detect condensed aromatic carbon, thought to be a chemical signature of astrobiology.( ).

Hydrogels' boost ability of stem cells to restore eyesight and heal brains ::: Scientists and engineers have made a breakthrough in cell transplantation using a gel-like biomaterial that keeps cells alive and helps them integrate better into tissue. In two early lab trials, this has already shown to partially reverse blindness and help the brain recover from stroke.( ).

Do flies have fear (or something like it)? ::: A fruit fly starts buzzing around food at a picnic, so you wave your hand over the insect and shoo it away. But when the insect flees the scene, is it doing so because it is actually afraid? Using fruit flies to study the basic components of emotion, a new study reports that a fly's response to a shadowy overhead stimulus might be analogous to a negative emotional state such as fear.( ).

Signaling pathway revealed through which a promising anti-leukemia drug kills cancer cells::: Due to overwhelming evidence of their effectiveness in mice, inhibitors of the leukemia protein BRD4, including the drug JQ1, moved into clinical trials starting in 2013. There are 12 trials targeting BRD4 in progress. Last year, clinical trial findings indicated that an oral inhibitor of BRD4 similar to JQ1 had led to complete remission in some patients. Now a team of researchers has determined the pathway through which JQ1 acts.( ).

Three perspectives on 'The Dress' ::: When you look at this photograph, what colors are the dress? Some see blue and black stripes, others see white and gold stripes. This striking variation took the internet by storm in February; now Current Biology is publishing three short papers on why the image is seen differently by different observers, and what this tells us about the complicated workings of color perception. ( ).

CLAIRE Brings Electron Microscopy to Soft Materials ::: Researchers have invented a technique called “CLAIRE” that extends the incredible resolution of electron microscopy to the non-invasive nanoscale imaging of soft matter, including biomolecules, liquids, polymers, gels and foams. ( ).

Hubble Catches a Stellar Exodus in Action ::: Astronomers have captured for the first time snapshots of fledgling white dwarf stars beginning their slow-paced, 40-million-year migration from the crowded center of an ancient star cluster to the less populated suburbs. ( ).

Further assessment needed of dispersants used in response to oil spills ::: Experts argue for further in-depth assessments of the impacts of dispersants on microorganisms to guide their use in response to future oil spills. Chemical dispersants are widely used in emergency responses to oil spills in marine environments as a means of stimulating microbial degradation of oil. After the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010, dispersants were applied to the sea surface and deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico, the latter of which was unprecedented. Dispersants were used as a first line of defense even though little is known about how they affect microbial communities or the biodegradation activities they are intended to spur. ( ).

New trigger for volcanic eruptions discovered using jelly and lasers ::: Scientists have made an important step towards understanding how volcanic eruptions happen, after identifying a previously unrecognized potential trigger. Researchers think their findings could lead to new ways of interpreting signs of volcanic unrest measured by satellites and surface observations. ( ).

Computerized vital signs analysis may help prevent trauma patients from bleeding to death ::: A research team has successfully field tested a system that analyzed patient vital signs during emergency transport in a fully automated fashion, finding that such a system could diagnose those with life-threatening bleeding before they arrive at the hospital, potentially saving lives. ( ).

Study estimates prevalence of glaucoma among Singapore Chinese ::: A study of Chinese adults in Singapore suggests the prevalence of glaucoma, a disease of the eye that can result in blindness, was 3.2 percent, with no difference from a previous study conducted in 1997, according to a study.( ).

Study examines treatment factors associated with oral cavity cancer survival ::: The surgical procedure known as neck dissection to remove lymph nodes and receiving treatment at academic or research institutions was associated with improved survival in patients with stages I and II oral cavity squamous cell cancer, according to a report.( ).

Sound waves could be viable alternative in diagnosing minor fractures ::: A study has been conducted of the usefulness and efficiency of portable ultrasound in detecting the presence of minor fractures in patients presenting to a minor injuries unit. Analysis showed that 85% of patients with a fracture confirmed by X-ray had injuries detected through ultrasonography. The authors say emergency clinicians could rule in fractures by studying the ultrasound images but ruling out fractures is still the job of radiographers.( ).

New form of inherited blindness discovered ::: Scientists have discovered that mutations in the gene DRAM2 cause a new type of late-onset inherited blindness. The research describes individuals from five families with a variety of DRAM2 mutations, all of which lead to loss of central vision beginning at age 30-40. Peripheral vision loss is also described in older individuals. ( ).

Minimal residual disease alone not predictive in T-cell leukemia ::: Researchers found that the presence of a few remaining leukemia cells, called minimal residual disease (MRD), at the end of induction chemotherapy was not predictive of risk or outcome in children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This opens the possibility for patients with T-cell ALL who have MRD to achieve complete remission without undergoing intensified cancer treatments and their associated toxicities.( ).

Research paves way for early detection of liver cancer ::: Researchers have developed the first robust and noninvasive detection of early stage liver cancer and liver metastases, in addition to other liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and liver fibrosis. More than 700,000 people are diagnosed with liver cancer each year. It is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, accounting for more than 600,000 deaths annually. ( ).

Patient-centered outcomes studies needed in pain management ::: People suffering chronic pain have valuable information to share about their condition and overall health that can help pain researchers and physicians in treatment planning, according to experts.( ).

How healthcare is organized may affect how well blood pressure is controlled ::: For medical practices, having more unique doctors on staff and having doctors see more patients doesn't necessarily lead to improved patient outcomes—and in fact, may have the opposite effect, according to report. ( ).

Unemployment linked to rise in prostate cancer deaths ::: The knock-on effects of the economic downturn have been explored in economy and psychology. Now researchers are examining the effects of unemployment on an even darker subject – cancer mortality.( ).

Contraceptive, cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cancer ::: The combination of a cholesterol-lowering drug, Bezafibrate, and a contraceptive steroid, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, could be an effective, non-toxic treatment for a range of cancers, researchers have found. ( ).

New analytics model predicts readmission of congestive heart failure patients ::: Readmission of patients with chronic diseases is a growing problem, costing the U.S. health-care system about $25 billion each year. Researchers have developed a predictive analytics model that can identify congestive heart failure patients with high readmission risk and potentially help stymie those costs.( ).

New release of Glioblastoma Atlas sheds light on deadly disease ::: Robust new data added to the Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project changes the scope and impact of this publicly available resource for researchers and clinicians searching for treatments for this most deadly and aggressive of brain cancers, glioblastoma multiforme. ( ).

Safety switch preserves beneficial effects of cell therapy ::: A single dose of an otherwise harmless drug can safely control the severe and often lethal side effects associated with haploidentical stem cell transplantation, new research has found. The switch, scientists say, allows for the elimination of the donor cells that cause graft versus host disease but leave behind the component that fights viral infection.( ).

New cancer treatment, prevention studies signal major advances for children, adults ::: Results from four major studies have been announced by experts, showing that: use of a widely available vitamin pill reduces the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers; that early chemotherapy extends the lives of men with advanced prostate cancers; and that new therapies can improve outcomes for children with a rare form of kidney cancer and adults with relapsed multiple myeloma.( ).

Comet Wild 2: A window into the birth of the solar system? ::: Scientists have investigated the oxygen isotope and mineral composition of the comet dust returned from Wild 2. The team discovered an unexpected combination of material that has deepened the mystery of Wild 2's past. ( ).

Educating the immune system to prevent allergies ::: With the arrival of spring, millions of people have begun their annual ritual of sneezing and wheezing due to seasonal allergies. A research team is bringing them hope with a potential vaccine that nudges the immune response away from developing allergies. The findings have major clinical implications since allergies and asthma often start in childhood and for which there is presently no cure. ( ).

Breakthrough opens door to safer lupus drugs::: A ground-breaking discovery could revolutionize treatments given to lupus sufferers, saving thousands of people each year from serious illness or death caused by secondary infections, researchers report.( ).

Computer intelligence system developed for acute stroke detection ::: A novel computer-aided detection system has been developed for acute stroke using computer intelligence technology. The detection accuracy is 90 percent, which is as high as that conducted by specialists, but at a much reduced time from 10-15 minutes to three minutes. The new system serves as a second opinion for frontline medical doctors, enabling timely and appropriate treatment for stroke patients.( ).

Frontline immune cells can travel for help ::: Neutrophils' cells that form the bulk of our fast-acting 'innate' immune system behave differently, depending on whether an injury is infected or not, new research shows.( ).

Children's views should shape how research is conducted, says ethics body ::: A new report calls for a change in culture across all areas of children's health research, so that children's and young people's views and opinions can help to shape how research is prioritized, designed and reviewed. Unless ethical concerns about asking children to take part in research are addressed, our understanding of childhood disorders and ability to provide evidence based care will remain limited. ( ).

Climate scientists find warming in higher atmosphere: Elusive tropospheric hot spot located ::: Updated data and better analysis methods have found clear indications of warming in the upper troposphere and a 10 percent increase in winds over the Southern Ocean. The inability to detect this hotspot previously has been used by those who doubt human-made global warming to suggest climate change is not occurring as a result of increasing carbon dioxide emissions. ( ).

Afterlife belief preserves hope when thinking about death, new research suggests ::: The prospect of death does not necessarily leave people feeling hopelessly mortal but depends rather on afterlife belief, suggests new research from psychologists who set out to establish in four separate studies whether people lose hope when thinking about death – known as Terror Management Theory – under a range of different conditions. The research was based on the premise that self-awareness among humans has been shown to create the potential for hope – or the general expectation and feeling that future desired outcomes will occur.( ).

Definitive tests for irritable bowel syndrome developed ::: Millions of people afflicted by irritable bowel syndrome can now be diagnosed quickly and accurately with two simple blood tests developed by a gastroenterologist. The tests confirm when a patient has developed IBS because of food poisoning, a major cause of the disorder. ( ).

Tiny wasp controls nuisance whitefly ::: The Rugose spiraling whitefly leaves a sticky white mess on everything from cars to homes and golf courses and trees. But a wasp the size of a pin head can control it, say scientists.( ).

Bid for bandages to enter the electronic age: Electrical stimulation promotes healing ::: The most detailed study to date showing how electrical stimulation accelerates wound healing has now been carried out. ( ).

Intense lasers cook up complex, self-assembled nanomaterials, fast ::: New technique makes nanomaterial self-assembly 1,000 times faster and could be used for industrial-scale solar panels and electronics.( ).

Revealing kidney cancer's secret ::: An international team of scientists has used a sophisticated combination of proteomics and metabolomics to show how renal cell carcinoma (RCC) reprograms its metabolism and evades the immune system. In addition, the study found that cancer grade has a major impact on this reprogramming. These results point to new therapeutic options for this particularly deadly cancer. ( ).

Bullying: What we know based on 40 years of research ::: Psychologists have reviewed over 40 years of research on bullying among school age youth, documented the current understanding of the complexity of the issue and suggested directions for future research.( ).

Those who believe in pure evil support more harsh criminal punishments, study finds ::: People who believe in pure evil are more likely support sentences such as life in prison without parole and the death penalty for criminals, a psychology study finds. The researchers added that it's likely that life experience more than religion that influences a belief in pure evil. When investigating whether a religious upbringing was linked to a belief in pure evil, researchers found that people's belief in pure evil didn't necessitate a belief in pure good and vice versa. ( ).

New age of genome editing could lead to cure for sickle cell anemia ::: Researchers have shown that changing just a single letter of the DNA of human red blood cells in the laboratory increases their production of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin — a world-first advance that could lead to a cure for sickle cell anemia and other blood disorders. The new genome editing technique introduces a beneficial, naturally occurring genetic mutation into the cells to switch on a gene that is turned off in most people after birth. ( ).

Valuable Massachusetts ecosystems shrinking, doing more with less, study shows ::: Ecologists and conservation groups single out the hardest-working ecosystems — called "hotspots" — for their exceptional conservation value. The number of ecosystem hotspots has increased in Massachusetts over the past decade, with more and more hotspots popping up in metro Boston, a study has found.( ).

Common hospital soap effective in preventing hospital-acquired infections ::: A new study holds hope for a relatively inexpensive way to improve care and prevent the spread of deadly hospital-acquired infections by bathing patients in a common hospital soap. MRSA and other hospital acquired infections are a growing healthcare concern. The CDC reported that on any given day, about one in every 25 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated infection. Its survey found an estimated 722,000 hospital-acquired infections in U.S acute care hospitals in 2011, the most recent year for which it has data. It also found 75,000 hospital patients with these infections died during their hospitalizations.( ).

Geneticists clock genetic differences between 'larks' and 'night owls' ::: Geneticists have for the first time identified the genetic clues behind what makes you a 'lark' or an 'owl'. Based on analysis of a fruit fly, the scientists have discovered nearly 80 genes associated with 'morningness' and 'eveningness'.( ).

Recommended levels of activity rarely achieved in busy workplace environment ::: Even a busy job may not provide enough exercise to meet current activity recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, according to a study. The study examined the activity patterns of 83 employees working in six occupational groups at a European hospital during a typical working week. Everyone wore a pedometer to record each step taken and energy expenditure was assessed according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.( ).

Mental 'map' and 'compass' are two separate systems, researchers say ::: In a new study in mice, researchers have shown that mental 'map' and 'compass' systems work independently. A cue that unambiguously provided both types of information allowed the mice to determine their location but not the direction they were facing. ( ).

Mood instability common to mental health disorders, associated with poor outcomes ::: Mood instability occurs in a wide range of mental disorders, and is not exclusive to affective conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorder, new research confirms. The research also found that mood instability was associated with poorer clinical outcomes. ( ).

Smoking, drug abuse could more than triple annual ER visits ::: Smokers are four times more likely than non-smokers to become frequent visitors of emergency rooms, according to findings uncovered by a preliminary study by an emergency room utilization researcher. Also, substance abuse and psychiatric illness could triple annual ER visits. ( ).

Protein seen 'quaking' after chemical bond breaks ::: Scientists for the first time have precisely measured a protein's natural "knee-jerk" reaction to the breaking of a chemical bond — a quaking motion that propagated through the protein at the speed of sound.( ).

Significant cost savings found in pediatric telemedicine consults ::: A comprehensive study has been completed to determine whether pediatric telemedicine consultations with rural emergency departments save money compared to telephone consults.( ).

Lowly 'new girl' chimps form stronger female bonds ::: Low-ranking 'new girl' chimpanzees seek out other gal pals with similar status, finds a new study. The results are based on 38 years' worth of daily records for 53 adult females in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, where Jane Goodall first started studying chimpanzees in the 1960s. The researchers are still working out whether the low-ranking pairs are true buddies, friends of convenience, or merely acquaintances. ( ).

Savannahs slow climate change, experts say ::: Tropical rainforests have long been considered the Earth's lungs, sequestering large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thereby slowing down the increasing greenhouse effect and associated human-made climate change.Scientists in a global research project now show that the vast extensions of semi-arid landscapes occupying the transition zone between rainforest and desert dominate the ongoing increase in carbon sequestration by ecosystems globally, as well as large fluctuations between wet and dry years. This is a major rearrangement of planetary functions.( ).

Obese teens' brains unusually susceptible to food commercials, study finds ::: TV food commercials disproportionately stimulate the brains of overweight teenagers, including the regions that control pleasure, taste and — most surprisingly — the mouth, suggesting they mentally simulate unhealthy eating habits that make it difficult to lose weight later in life.( ).

New model predicts fish population response to dams, other ecological factors ::: Researchers have developed a model to assess how dams affect the viability of sea-run fish species that need to pass dams as they use both fresh and marine waters during their lifetimes. The aim is to test how varying passage efficiency at dams related to survival rates for these species, using a model of endangered Atlantic salmon as a case study. ( ).

Flames fan lasting fallout from Chernobyl ::: In the years following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster, forest fires billowed plumes of contaminated smoke, carrying radioactive particles throughout Europe on the wind. Now, researchers fear that a shift to a hotter, drier climate in Eastern Europe could increase the frequency of these fires. ( ).

Seismic signals used to track above-ground explosions ::: Researchers have determined that a tunnel bomb explosion by Syrian rebels was less than 60 tons as claimed by sources. Using seismic stations in Turkey, the scientists created a method to determine source characteristics of near earth surface explosions. They found the above-ground tunnel bomb blast under the Wadi al-Deif Army Base near Aleppo last spring was likely not as large as originally estimated and was closer to 40 tons.( ).

For pollock surveys in Alaska, things are looking up ::: Scientists have turned their view of the nation's largest fishery upside down with upward-facing sonar systems that are mounted to the seafloor and monitor the passage of fish above. They just completed their first experimental deployment of the new system, and the data, though upside down, looked great. In the future, these systems might augment traditional, ship-based acoustic surveys. ( ).

New chemical technology boosts potency of targeted cancer therapy ::: A new chemical technology uses cancer cells' own protein-degrading machinery to destroy, rather than merely inhibit, cancer proteins. Researchers developed the strategy as a way to develop inhibitors of "undruggable" proteins and overcome drug resistance, a common shortcoming of targeted therapies. Resistance arises when tumors that originally responded to a particular therapy manage to circumvent the drug's effects and resume their growth.( ).

Epstein-Barr virus co-infection may boost malaria mortality in childhood ::: Malaria researchers are calling attention to a trouble-maker whose effects may be underappreciated: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Their experiments with mice show that co-infection with a virus closely related to EBV can make a survivable malaria parasite infection lethal.( ).

Intuitive control of robotic arm using thoughts alone ::: Through a clinical collaboration between Caltech, Keck Medicine of USC and Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, a 34-year-old paralyzed man is the first person in the world to have a neural prosthetic device implanted in a region of the brain where intentions are made, giving him the ability to perform a fluid hand-shaking gesture, drink a beverage, and even play 'rock, paper, scissors,' using a robotic arm. ( ).

Tara Oceans expedition yields treasure trove of plankton data ::: A multinational team of researchers who spent three and a half years sampling the ocean's sunlit upper layers aboard the schooner Tara unveil the first officially reported global analyses of the Tara Oceans consortium. ( ).

New insights into global ocean microbe-virus interactions, drivers of Earth's ecosystems ::: Ocean microbes are vital to the Earth's ecosystems, and their interactions with ocean viruses can have dramatic effects on processes ranging from oxygen production to food supply. Marine biologists have now uncovered new information about the way marine viruses and microbes interact on a global scale, which may allow researchers to predictively model their complex interactions.( ).

Sudden onset of ice loss in Antarctica so large it affects Earth's gravity field ::: Scientists have observed a sudden increase of ice loss in a previously stable region of Antarctica. The ice loss in the region is so large that it causes small changes in the gravity field of the Earth.( ).

Partly human yeast show a common ancestor's lasting legacy ::: Despite a billion years of evolution separating humans from the baker's yeast in their refrigerators, hundreds of genes from an ancestor that the two species have in common live on nearly unchanged in them both, say biologists. The team created thriving strains of genetically engineered yeast using human genes and found that certain groups of genes are surprisingly stable over evolutionary time.( ).

Can a viral co-infection impair immunity against Plasmodium and turn malaria lethal?::: It is known that infections with certain viruses can weaken the immune response to another pathogen. A new study reports provocative findings in mice that infection with the mouse equivalent of Epstein-Barr virus can turn infections with certain parasites that cause malaria in mice (which are normally quickly suppressed by the immune system) into a lethal disease. ( ).

Proteins may slow memory loss in people with Alzheimer's ::: Certain proteins may slow the devastating memory loss caused by Alzheimer’s disease, according to a groundbreaking new study. The researchers found evidence that an elevated presence of a protein called neuronal pentraxin-2 may slow cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy in people with Alzheimer's disease. ( ).

Mosquito sex-determining gene could help fight dengue fever ::: A gene responsible for sex determination in mosquitoes that can transmit yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses has been identified by researchers. Only female mosquitoes bite because they need blood for developing eggs, and researchers believe that a higher ratio of males could reduce disease transmission. ( ).

Cutting e-waste: Device will self-destruct when heated ::: Where do electronics go when they die? Most devices are laid to eternal rest in landfills. But what if they just dissolved away, or broke down to their molecular components so that the material could be recycled? Researchers have developed heat-triggered self-destructing electronic devices, a step toward greatly reducing electronic waste and boosting sustainability in device manufacturing. They also developed a radio-controlled trigger that could remotely activate self-destruction on demand. ( ).

Genetic maps help conservation managers maintain healthy bears ::: A comprehensive genetic study of American black bears throughout North America has been completed by scientists. They discovered that black bears in Alaska are more closely related to bears in the eastern regions of the US and Canada than those located in western regions. The study revealed ancient movement patterns of black bears and provide detailed 'genetic maps' that could help conservation management officials maintain healthy bear populations throughout North America. ( ).

Bacteria cooperate to repair damaged siblings::: A certain type of soil bacteria can use their social behavior of outer membrane exchange to repair damaged cells and improve the fitness of the bacteria population as a whole, new research demonstrates. This is the first evidence that a bacterium can use cell-content sharing to repair damaged siblings, the authors say. ( ).

International study of advanced prostate cancer genome finds potential targets for drug therapy ::: First study of the genomic composition of prostate cancer shows many patients have gene mutations that can be targeted with existing or potential drugs. The finding is based on an analysis of tumor samples from 150 men with metastatic prostate cancer that no longer responded to standard hormone-blocking therapy.( ).

Scientists unveil prostate cancer's 'Rosetta Stone' ::: Almost 90 percent of men with advanced prostate cancer carry genetic mutations in their tumors that could be targeted by either existing or new cancer drugs, a landmark new study reveals. Scientists now have created a comprehensive map of the genetic mutations within lethal prostate cancers that have spread around the body, in a paper being hailed as the disease's 'Rosetta Stone.'( ).

New biotechnology for high efficiency purification of live human cells ::: Cell therapies require a purification step that isolates the desired cell types from contaminating cells. Normally cell surface receptors are used as markers to distinguish cell types, but undesired cell types also show these receptors, compromising purification. Evidence suggests microRNA may be a better marker. ( ).

Fossil of 425-million-year-old parasite with host discovered in England ::: Scientists have discovered a new species of fossil in England — and identified it as an ancient parasitic intruder. The fossil species — a 'tongue worm', which has a worm-like body and a head and two pairs of limbs — is actually a parasite whose representatives today live internally in the respiratory system of a host, which it enters when it is eaten. ( ).

Memories influence choice of food ::: The stronger our memory is of a certain food, the more likely we are to choose it — even if it is the more unattractive option. Psychologists conducted a study on how memory influences our choices by offering various foods and using scans to track brain activity. The researchers were able to show that the influence of memory is mediated by increasing communication between the relevant brain areas.( ).

Researchers discover molecular approach to promote cancer cell death ::: Lung cancer researchers have discovered a novel strategy to exploit apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, for the treatment of lung cancer. The protein Bcl-2 is a known target for cancer treatment since it allows cancer cells to evade cell death via apoptosis. ( ).

Thunder god vine used in traditional Chinese medicine is a potential obesity treatment ::: An extract from the thunder god vine, which has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, reduces food intake and causes up to a 45 percent decrease in body weight in obese mice. The weight-loss compound, called Celastrol, produces its potent effects by enhancing the action of an appetite-suppressing hormone called leptin. The findings are an early indicator that Celastrol could be developed into a drug for the treatment of obesity. ( ).

Why you need one vaccine for measles and many for the flu ::: While the influenza virus mutates constantly and requires a yearly shot that offers a certain percentage of protection, old reliable measles needs only a two-dose vaccine during childhood for lifelong immunity. A new study has an explanation: The surface proteins that the measles virus uses to enter cells are ineffective if they suffer any mutation, meaning that any changes to the virus come at a major cost. ( ).

Our bond with dogs may go back more than 27,000 years ::: Dogs' special relationship to humans may go back 27,000 to 40,000 years, according to genomic analysis of an ancient Taimyr wolf bone. Earlier genome-based estimates have suggested that the ancestors of modern-day dogs diverged from wolves no more than 16,000 years ago, after the last Ice Age. ( ).

Most luminous galaxy in universe discovered::: A remote galaxy shining brightly with infrared light equal to more than 300 trillion suns has been discovered using data from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. The galaxy, which belongs to a new class of objects recently discovered by WISE — nicknamed extremely luminous infrared galaxies, or ELIRGs — is the most luminous galaxy found to date. ( ).

One-of-a-kind star discovered, nicknamed 'Nasty' ::: Astronomers have spent decades trying to determine the oddball behavior of an aging star nicknamed "Nasty 1" residing in our Milky Way galaxy. Looking at the star using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers had expected to see a bipolar outflow of twin lobes of gas from the star. The astronomers were surprised, however, to find a pancake-shaped disk of gas encircling the star. The vast disk is nearly 1,000 times the diameter of our solar system. ( ).

Compound has potential for treating rheumatoid arthritis ::: A new study outlines a chemical compound with potential for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects an estimated 1.3 million people in the world. Characterized by stiff, swollen joints, it's a progressive disease that occurs when the body's immune system attacks its own cells. Inflammation in the lining of the joints leads to loss of bone and cartilage. People who have rheumatoid arthritis lose mobility and joint function without adequate treatment.( ).

Premature aging: Scientists identify, correct defects in diseased cells ::: Scientists have succeeded in restoring normal activity in cells isolated from patients with the premature aging disease Cockayne syndrome. They have uncovered the role played in these cells by an enzyme, the HTRA3 protease.( ).

Dental researchers find some immune cells change to prolong inflammation ::: One of the mysteries of how a small group of immune cells work has been unraveled by researchers: some inflammation-fighting immune cells may actually convert into cells that trigger disease.( ).

Emoticons may signal better customer service 😉 ::: Online customer service agents who use emoticons and who are fast typists may have a better chance of putting smiles on their customers' faces during business-related text chats, according to researchers.( ).

Fine particulate air pollution linked to risk of childhood autism ::: Exposure to fine particulate air pollution during pregnancy through the first two years of the child's life may be associated with an increased risk of a child developing autism spectrum disorder, a condition that affects one in 68 children, according to an investigation of children in southwestern Pennsylvania.( ).

Workplace intervention improves sleep of employees' children ::: A workplace intervention designed to reduce employees' work-family conflict and increase schedule flexibility also has a positive influence on the sleep patterns of the employees' children, researchers report. ( ).

Snacking on protein can improve appetite control, diet quality in teens ::: Although eating high-protein, afternoon snacks can aid appetite control in adults, little information exists to guide parents on what types of snacks might benefit their adolescent children. Now, researchers have found that afternoon snacking, particularly on high-protein-soy foods, reduces afternoon appetite, delays subsequent eating and reduces unhealthy evening snacking in teenagers.( ).

Personalized care during eye visits didn't lower HbA1c levels for diabetics ::: Providing personalized education and risk assessment for patients with diabetes when they visit the ophthalmologist did not improve glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c levels compared with patients who received usual care, according to a study.( ).

Pliability, elasticity of skin increase following wrinkle treatment with Botox ::: Human skin has three biomechanical features: strength, pliability (the ability to stretch) and elasticity (the ability to recoil). As people age, these properties change and the loss of skin elasticity appears to be the most prominent. Now researchers report that skin pliability and elasticity improved after treatment with onabotulinum toxin (Botox) for mild facial wrinkles, and the effect lasted for up to four months. ( ).

Precision nanobatteries by the billions ::: Extremely small batteries built inside nanopores show that properly scaled structures can use the full theoretical capacity of the charge storage material. The batteries are part of assessing the basics of ion and electron transport in nanostructures for energy storage.( ).

Advertising: Most people feel alienated when viewing ultra-thin models ::: Marketers and advertisers who default to the "thin ideal" — the belief that thinner is better — could be alienating up to 70 percent of their audience( ).

Experts map surgical approaches for auditory brainstem implantation ::: A technique called auditory brainstem implantation can restore hearing for patients who can't benefit from cochlear implants. A team of experts has mapped out the surgical anatomy and approaches for auditory brainstem implantation.( ).

Imaging technique identifies early metastasis in lymph nodes ::: A highly sensitive imaging technique for non-invasive screening of lymph nodes for metastatic cancer has been developed by researchers. The new imaging technique — so far tested in mice — offers a rapid tool to noninvasively identify cancer's spread at its earliest stages.( ).

Injury rates from wearing high-heeled shoes have doubled ::: New research shows that high-heeled-shoe-related injuries doubled between 2002 and 2012. The frequency and severity of those injuries were sufficient to make the investigators suggest that wearing the appropriate shoes for the appropriate occasion and being aware of one's surroundings are good ideas.( ).

Blood to feeling: Scientists turn adult human blood cells into neurons ::: Stem cell scientists can now directly convert adult human blood cells to both central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain, temperature and itch perception. This means that how a person's nervous system cells react and respond to stimuli, can be determined from his blood. ( ).

Symbiosis turns messy in 13-year cicadas ::: Bacteria that live in the guts of cicadas have split into many separate but interdependent species in a strange evolutionary phenomenon that leaves them reliant on a bloated genome, a new paper has found. ( ).

Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes' quest for fire ::: The eastern diamondback rattlesnake has lost 97 percent of its habitat since becoming an American icon on the Revolutionary-era 'Don't Tread on Me' flag. New research demonstrates the critical nature of one element of the diamondback's home range, pine savanna. For conservationists seeking surrogate habitats for the now-rare species' dwindling population, the results underscore the need for prescribed fire management to maintain the open-canopy forest and its ecosystem. ( ).

Hiding your true colors may make you feel morally tainted ::: The advice, whether from Shakespeare or a modern self-help guru, is common: Be true to yourself. New research suggests that this drive for authenticity — living in accordance with our sense of self, emotions, and values — may be so fundamental that we actually feel immoral and impure when we violate our true sense of self. This sense of impurity, in turn, may lead us to engage in cleansing or charitable behaviors as a way of clearing our conscience. ( ).

Brain tumors: Millimeter by millimeter towards a better prognosis ::: A method known as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been gaining importance in neurosurgery for some time now. Among other applications, it is used to map brain tumors before an operation and to test whether important regions of the brain, for example motor and language areas, are affected. Doctors have now shown that preoperative nTMS analysis of motor areas improves the prognosis of patients with malignant brain tumors. ( ).

Field study shows how a GM crop can have diminishing success at fighting off insect pest::: A new study finds the toxin in a widely used genetically modified (GM) crop is having little impact on the crop pest corn earworm — which is consistent with predictions made almost 20 years ago that were largely ignored. The study may be a signal to pay closer attention to warning signs about the development of resistance in agricultural pests to GM crops.( ).

Odds are that chronic gamblers are often also depressed ::: If a young man is a chronic gambler, the chances are extremely high that he also suffers from depression, finds a study that is is the first to investigate the extent to which gambling and depression develop hand-in-hand from the teenage years to early adulthood. ( ).

Shape-shifting plastic developed ::: Researchers have developed a process to make a thermoset that can be reshaped and reused. The new plastic is a shape-memory polymer, so named because the material can “remember” its original shape and return to it after being deformed with heat or other forces.( ).

Twin boundaries in lithium-ion batteries: Turn that defect upside down ::: Most people see defects as flaws. A few researchers, however, see them as opportunities. Twin boundary defects may present an opportunity to improve lithium-ion batteries. ( ).

Safe long-term storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers? ::: Emplacement of carbon dioxide at the Bravo Dome gas field in New Mexico began more than 900,000 years earlier than previously estimated, according to scientists. The study documents the first field evidence for the safe long-term storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers. ( ).

Nicotinoid, fungal disease team up to break down termites' tough defenses ::: A small amount of nicotinoid pesticide substantially weakens termites' ability to fight off fungal diseases, researchers report. This is a finding that could lead to more effective methods of pest control, they say. ( ).

Metabolic abnormalities may increase cardiovascular risk more in black women than white women ::: Large waistline, cholesterol disorders and other metabolic abnormalities may increase the relative risk of cardiovascular disease more among black women than among white women. Black women who were overweight or obese had elevated cardiovascular risk compared with normal weight black women even when they did not have metabolic abnormalities. White women who were overweight or obese, but did not have the metabolic syndrome had a cardiovascular risk similar to that of normal weight white women without the metabolic syndrome. ( ).

Support group, home exercise improves mobility for peripheral artery disease patients::: Group therapy that encourages walking at home improves and prevents mobility loss among patients with clogged arteries in the legs, a study concludes. Clogged arteries in the legs can cause pain and fatigue while walking. Maintaining mobility is integral to preserving functional independence, social interactions and daily activities. ( ).

Seeing without eyes: Octopus's skin possesses the same cellular mechanism for detecting light as its eyes do ::: The skin of the California two-spot octopus can sense light even without input from the central nervous system. The animal does so by using the same family of light-sensitive proteins called opsins found in its eyes — a process not previously described for cephalopods. ( ).

Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed ::: Astronomers have caught a greedy galaxy gobbling on its neighbors and leaving crumbs of evidence about its dietary past.( ).

International study reveals that cold weather kills far more people than hot weather ::: Cold weather kills 20 times as many people as hot weather, according to an international study analyzing over 74 million deaths in 384 locations across 13 countries. The findings also reveal that deaths due to moderately hot or cold weather substantially exceed those resulting from extreme heat waves or cold spells. ( ).

Surviving harsh environments becomes a death-trap for specialist corals ::: The success of corals that adapt to survive in the world's hottest sea could contribute to their demise through global warming, according to new research. ( ).

Online safety: If you want something done right, do it yourself ::: The end-user is often the 'weakest link' in the Internet safety chain according to experts. The team's conclusion: Internet users have to take personal responsibility for their safety and security. This includes taking the necessary steps to learn how it can be done. ( ).

Arctic ducks combine nutrients from wintering, breeding grounds to grow healthy eggs ::: It takes a lot of nutrients to build an egg. One of the big questions among researchers who study the eggs of migratory birds is where those nutrients come from — does the mother make the egg directly out of what she eats during the breeding season, or does she save up nutrients consumed on her wintering grounds? The answer appears to be both for Common Eiders, large, sea-going ducks that breed in the Arctic. ( ).

Inexpensive way to manufacture nanofibers ::: Researchers have developed an inexpensive way to manufacture nanofibers. The new method, dubbed 'magnetospinning,' provides a very simple, scalable and safe means for producing very large quantities of nanofibers that can be embedded with a multitude of materials, including live cells and drugs.( ).

Drinking chamomile decreases risk of death in older Mexican American women ::: Drinking chamomile tea was associated with a decreased risk of death from all causes in Mexican-American American women over 65, a new study has shown. Chamomile is one of the oldest, most-widely used and well-documented medicinal plants in the world and has been recommended for a variety of healing applications. It is currently widely used as an herbal remedy in Mexico and among Mexican-Americans. ( ).

Analysis compares stent expansion achieved with guidance from OCT versus IVUS ::: Data from the ILUMIEN II trial found that guidance from optimal coherence tomography was associated with comparable stent expansion as guidance from intravascular ultrasound in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Results from the study were presented today at EuroPCR 2015, the official annual meeting of the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions.( ).

New studies contradict earlier findings on Rett syndrome ::: Bone marrow transplant does not rescue mouse models of Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disease that affects very young girls, a new study shows. The findings contradict seemingly promising results published in 2012, which initiated a clinical trial for human patients. Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affects about 1 in every 10,000 girls (it is most often fatal in boys at or near birth). Rett syndrome causes many disabilities, both intellectual and physical. ( ).

Physicians can play key role in preventing foodborne illness ::: Food safety awareness is key to understanding the food safety issues on the horizon, and clinicians at hospitals and doctors' offices play a key role in ensuring consumers are aware of the threats of foodborne illness, says an expert.( ).

With one false tweet, computer-based hack crash led to real panic ::: A false tweet from a hacked account owned by the Associated Press demonstrates the need to better understand how social media data is linked to decision making in the private and public sector, according to new research.( ).

Re-engineered antibiotic show potential for treatment of drug-resistant bacteria ::: Scientists have developed a second-generation antibiotic that shows early effectiveness against common bacterial infections that pose a serious health threat to children and adults.( ).

Copd is independent risk factor for cardiovascular death, but not risk of stroke ::: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is associated with increased risk of dying from a cardiovascular disease such as heart failure or a heart attack, as well as diseases not associated with the heart. However, COPD is not by itself associated with increased likelihood of having a stroke or a systemic embolism, according to a new research study.( ).

Australian public not being informed about dangers of medical overdiagnosis ::: A national survey reveals that only one in ten Australians report being told about the risk of overdiagnosis by their doctors, according to research. The increasingly recognized problem of overdiagnosis happens when someone is diagnosed with a disease that will never cause them any harm, often as a result of healthy people being screened for diseases such as breast or prostate cancer. Overdiagnosis can be harmful due to unnecessary labeling and treatment. ( ).

Acetaminophen in pregnancy may lower testosterone in unborn boys ::: Prolonged acetaminophen (paracetamol) use by pregnant women may reduce testosterone production in unborn baby boys, research has found. Researchers say their findings could help to explain reported links between acetaminophen use in pregnancy and reproductive health problems in young boys. ( ).

Deepwater Horizon oil spill contributed to high number of Gulf dolphin deaths ::: As part of an unusual mortality event investigation, a team of scientists has discovered that dead bottlenose dolphins stranded in the northern Gulf of Mexico since the start of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill have lung and adrenal lesions consistent with petroleum product exposure.( ).

First dinosaur fossil discovered in Washington state ::: Paleontologists have published a description of the first dinosaur fossil from Washington state. The fossil was collected along the shores of Sucia Island State Park in the San Juan Islands. ( ).

Male Java sparrows may 'drum' to their songs::: Male Java sparrows may coordinate their bill-clicking sounds with the notes of their song. Birds may communicate using both vocalizations and movement, as for instance occurs during courtship displays, but scientists' understanding of how they coordinate their movements with the sounds they produce is limited. To further investigate birds' communicative and musical abilities, the authors of this study looked into the vocalizations and bill sounds associated with singing in the Java sparrow, a song bird. ( ).

We have difficulty understanding the world map's edge ::: Where do the aircraft pop up again? A new study shows that we have difficulty understanding how the edges of a world map are connected. Both adults and children have great difficulties to accurately indicate where an aircraft passing the world map's edge comes back to the map.( ).

Peat moss, a necessary bane ::: The temperature balance on Earth may be dependent on a conspicuous creation that sours life for everyone around, guzzles more than a sponge and produces lots of offspring that behave likewise. And you thought your neighbors were bad. ( ).

Development of gold nanoparticles that control osteogenic differentiation of stem cells ::: Scientists have successfully developed gold nanoparticles that have functional surfaces and act on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.( ).

Mesoporous particles for the development of drug delivery system safe to human bodies ::: Scientists have succeeded in developing porous particles (mesoporous particles) consisting solely of phospholipids, a biological component, that are suitable for use as a drug delivery system. ( ).

Nanospace-controlled gold material created using molecular technology ::: Scientists have successfully developed a nanoporous gold material with a regular, uniform pore arrangement using polymers as a template.( ).

Colorado's biggest storms can happen any time, study shows ::: In a state known for its dramatic weather and climate, Colorado's history of extreme precipitation varies considerably by season and location, according to a new study. Decision makers — often facing increased pressure to consider climate change information — typically turn to historical averages to understand when and where extreme rain, hail and snow happen in the state. But those averages often are not reliable because they're based on observations of events that don't happen frequently and because the observations themselves are limited, especially in remote areas, researchers say. ( ).

Defects can 'Hulk-up' materials ::: A new study has shown that just as exposure to gamma radiation transforms Bruce Banner into fictional superhero the Hulk, exposure to alpha-particle radiation can transform thermoelectric materials into far more powerful versions of themselves.( ).

Regrets? Opting out of clinical trials may prompt more than a few ::: Women who choose not to participate in a clinical trial may be significantly more likely to later regret that decision than women who choose to participate in the study, according to a team of researchers. ( ).

DNA bank holds saliva samples of people who stutter ::: Scientists want people who stutter to give a spit — five milliliters to be precise — to help find the cause and a cure for stuttering.( ).

Energy harvesting? Measuring thermoelectric behavior by 'tinkertoy' materials ::: Researchers have made the first measurements of thermoelectric behavior by a nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), a development that could lead to an entirely new class of materials for such applications as cooling computer chips and cameras and energy harvesting. ( ).

Scientists tackle mystery of thunderstorms that strike at night ::: From June 1 through July 15, researchers from across North America will fan out each evening across the Great Plains to study the mysterious phenomenon of nighttime thunderstorms. ( ).

Biomarker may boost ovarian cancer chemotherapy response ::: A molecule that helps control gene expression may play a role in controlling chemotherapy resistance among patients with the most common form of ovarian cancer. Chemoresistance is a major challenge in cancer treatment and this study may provide a means to overcome resistance, the researchers say. ( ).

Robotic sonar system inspired by bats ::: Engineers have taken the first steps toward building a novel dynamic sonar system inspired by horseshoe bats that could be more efficient and take up less space than current man-made sonar arrays. ( ).

Injected immune cells safe in multiple myeloma patients, pilot study finds ::: In a report on what is believed to be the first small clinical trial of its kind, researchers say they have safely used immune cells grown from patients’ own bone marrow to treat multiple myeloma, a cancer of white blood cells.( ).

Scientists reveal potential new drug target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ::: A novel drug target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been identified, which focuses on the cells that are directly responsible for the cartilage damage in affected joints. Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease that leads to stiff, deformed joints and often crippling pain, affects around 1.5 million adults in the United States. The immune system's attack on the body's own tissue leads to chronic, painful inflammation in the affected joints. ( ).

Study reveals how eastern US forests came to be ::: Spring visitors to Great Smoky Mountains or the Blue Ridge Parkway will see ridges and valleys covered in flowering mountain laurels, rhododendrons, tulip poplars, dogwoods, black locusts and silverbell trees. A new study of nearly all the trees and shrubs in the southern Appalachians suggests that roughly half of the species can trace their relatives to thousands of miles away in Asia. Most of the rest likely arose within North America, the researchers say.( ).

How video gamers will be able to play in the cloud without guzzling gigabytes ::: Gamers might one day be able to enjoy the same graphics-intensive fast-action video games they play on their gaming consoles or personal computers from mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets without guzzling gigabytes, thanks to a new tool developed. Named 'Kahawai' after the Hawaiian word for stream, the tool delivers graphics and gameplay on par with conventional cloud-gaming, while using one sixth of the bandwidth.( ).

Resolving a lymphatic riddle: Researchers to grow, for the first time, lymphatic cells in the lab ::: For over one hundred years, scientists have debated the question of the origins of the lymphatic system — a parallel system to the blood vessels that serves as a conduit for everything from immune cells to fat molecules to cancer cells. This debate is over, now that researchers have grown, for the first time, lymphatic cells in the lab. ( ).

Supernova ignition surprises scientists ::: Scientists have captured the early death throes of supernovae for the first time and found that the universe's benchmark explosions are much more varied than expected.The scientists used the Kepler space telescope to photograph three type 1a supernovae in the earliest stages of ignition. They then tracked the explosions in detail to full brightness around three weeks later, and the subsequent decline over the next few months. ( ).

Supernova collides with its companion star ::: Type Ia supernovae, one of the most dazzling phenomena in the universe, are produced when small dense stars called white dwarfs explode with ferocious intensity. At their peak, these supernovae can outshine an entire galaxy. Although thousands of supernovae of this kind were found in the last decades, the process by which a white dwarf becomes one has been unclear. ( ).

World's oldest stone tools challenge ideas about first toolmakers ::: Scientists working in the desert of northwestern Kenya have found stone tools dating back 3.3 million years, long before the advent of modern humans, and by far the oldest such artifacts yet discovered. The tools push the known date of such tools back by 700,000 years; they also may challenge the notion that our own most direct ancestors were the first to bang two rocks together to create a new technology. ( ).

Fundamental magnetism discovery: New class of swelling magnets ::: A new class of magnets that expand their volume when placed in a magnetic field and generate negligible amounts of wasteful heat during energy harvesting, has been discovered. ( ).

People with metabolic syndrome face higher cardiovascular death risk ::: People who have metabolic syndrome are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than people who do not have the condition, and having diabetes or high blood pressure worsens the risk, according to a new study. ( ).

Mothers of sons more likely to develop diabetes during pregnancy ::: Gestational diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman has higher levels of glucose, or blood sugar, in the bloodstream than normal. New research suggests that an unborn child’s gender can affect the mother’s risk of developing gestational diabetes or Type 2 diabetes later in life. ( ).

Researchers focus on potential tool for predicting survival, staging in prostate cancer::: A molecule that promotes metastasis of advanced prostate cancer to the bone, an incurable condition that significantly decreases quality of life, has been identified by researchers. The research may offer new targets for diagnosing and treating this common disease. ( ).

Severe weather may be linked to Arctic warming ::: New evidence has linked Arctic warming with severe weather in countries including the UK and US. The studies are adding to the growing weight of evidence linking increased Arctic temperatures with changes in mid-latitude weather patterns.( ).

American energy use up slightly, carbon emissions almost unchanged ::: Americans' energy use continued to grow slowly in 2014, fueled by increases in the use of natural gas, wind and solar, according to the most recent energy flow charts. ( ).

Study pinpoints the likeliest rodent sources of future human infectious diseases ::: Researchers have developed a way to predict which species of rodents are likeliest to be sources of new disease outbreaks in humans. The findings could help public health officials take a more preemptive approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control.( ).

Metal pollutants in earthworms may threaten forest predators, study finds ::: Invasive earthworms in New England's forests are absorbing toxic metal pollutants in potentially hazardous levels that may be contributing to a decline in birds, amphibians and mammals that feed on them, a study finds.( ).

Inhaled corticosteroids for COPD decrease mortality risk from pneumonia and other causes ::: Treatment of COPD with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may decrease the risk of dying from pneumonia and from other causes despite being associated with an increase in the occurrence of pneumonia, according to a new meta-analysis. ( ).

Natural gas versus diesel: Examining the climate impacts of natural gas trucks ::: Some major trucking companies are turning to natural gas to fuel their fleets — and to earn 'green' credit among customers. But celebrating lower emissions could be premature, according to a recent analysis. Researchers have found that converting heavy-duty trucks to run on natural gas could lead to negative climate impacts if steps are not taken to improve engine efficiency and reduce methane emissions from the fuel's supply chain. ( ).

Include men in osteoporosis screening guidelines, experts urge ::: Osteoporosis affects more men than prostate cancer. In a large study of smokers, men were more likely than women to have osteoporosis and fractures of their vertebrae. Smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were independent risk factors for low bone density among both men and women. Researchers say screening for low vBMD by using QCT in men and women who are smokers will increase opportunities to identify and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population.( ).

Do you see 'the self' in your brain or your heart? Decision-making differs ::: Whether people locate their sense of self in the brain or the heart can have a major influence on people's decision-making, according to a new study by management and business experts.( ).

Experimental Ebola treatment boosts survival in mice ::: The number of new Ebola cases is tapering off, but the search for new treatments continues. Now, one research team has found potential drug candidates that successfully treated up to 90 percent of mice exposed to the Ebola virus. ( ).

Do CEOs deserve all the attention they get? New research provides answers ::: Media interest in CEOs has soared to stratospheric heights in recent years, with the likes of Jeff Bezos and Steve Jobs becoming household names. But do corporate top dogs deserve all that attention? New research shows that a CEO does indeed often have an outsized effect on firm performance. ( ).

One simple molecule regulates sexual behavior in Drosophila ::: Until now researchers have failed to identify the specific pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster that leads to mating success. Although the pheromones that inhibit mating in Drosophila were known, the positive pheromone signal that elicits courtship behavior and mating remained a mystery. Scientists have succeeded in identifying the molecule that regulates complex mating behavior in vinegar flies: a fatty acid methyl ester called methyl laurate. ( ).

Amazing microdroplet structures may lead to new technologies ::: Unexpected shapes of mesoscale atoms — structures built of microdroplets encapsulated within microdroplets — have now been created. The discovery was possible with a new method for precise control over placement of tiny segments of liquid, one in another. With further progress in innovative microfluidic systems, the method may find use in medicine and materialsscience.( ).

Bats treated for white nose syndrome released in wild: New optimism ::: Biologists have expressed cautious optimism about a possible treatment for White-nose Syndrome (WNS). They have now released bats that had WNS last fall but were successfully treated during a field trial over the past winter. ( ).

Regular aspirin use may slow progression of early emphysema ::: Regular use of aspirin may help slow the progression of early emphysema, according to new research.( ).

Curing hepatitis C could yield huge economic benefit ::: While a new generation of safer, more effective oral medications to treat hepatitis C patients may cost tens of thousands of dollars for a 12-week regiment, investing in these new therapies could generate savings estimated at more than $3.2 billion annually in the US and five European countries, according to a new study. These savings would have a significant economic impact on society.( ).

Shorter stature appears to lead to higher mortality rates, longer waiting times for lung transplantation ::: Lung transplant candidates who are about 5’3” or shorter have longer waiting times than taller candidates and are more likely to die within a year while waiting for a lung transplant, according to a new study.( ).

Many children with asthma have reaction to peanuts, but do not know it ::: In recent years and months, peanut allergies in children have been in the news frequently, as scientists reveal new insights into why more and more children are developing them and what can be done to avoid them. However, until now, few have studied the connection between peanut allergy and childhood asthma. ( ).

Promising research trials find new combination of drugs treat underlying cause of most common form of cystic fibrosis ::: Results from clinical trials show that a new combination of medications can successfully treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis for patients 12 and older with two copies of the F508del gene mutation — the most common form of the life-threatening, genetic disease found in over half of the CF population. ( ).

Mechanical and chemical characteristics of electronic cigarettes contribute to potentially hazardous effects ::: Unlike standard cigarettes, the components of electronic cigarettes are not regulated and standardized, thus they vary widely between products. The characteristics of these e-cigarette elements, including their delivery systems, combustion apparatuses, and the composition of the nicotine solutions they contain may affect the levels of potentially hazardous substances in the vapor they produce, according to a new study.( ).

Electronic cigarette flavorings alter lung function at the cellular level ::: Certain flavorings used in electronic cigarette liquid may alter important cellular functions in lung tissue, according to new research. These changes in cell viability, cell proliferation, and calcium signaling are flavor-dependent. Coupling these results with chemicals identified in each flavor could prove useful in identifying flavors or chemical constituents that produce adverse effects in users. ( ).

Evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective for smoking cessation long-term is lacking ::: There is little reliable evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective for long-term smoking cessation, according to a new analysis of the currently available research.( ).

One exposure to e-cigarette use diminishes cough reflex sensitivity ::: With just one exposure to electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor, participants in a study of 30 healthy subjects demonstrated a diminishment of cough reflex sensitivity. ( ).

Revising guidelines for testosterone testing could more accurately diagnose deficiency ::: Some men suffering from testosterone deficiency may be missed under current clinical guidelines while others are misdiagnosed with testosterone deficiency, new research suggests. The researchers call for a revision of the clinical guidelines to ensure that men are receiving the best possible care.( ).

High salt intake may delay puberty ::: High salt diets may delay puberty. As the salt content of Western diets continues to increase these findings could have significant consequences for the reproductive health of future generations.( ).

New guidelines aim to resolve conflicts in treating critically ill patients ::: Who should decide what life-prolonging medical treatments the intensive care patient should receive: the clinician or the patient's family? The answer in almost all circumstances should be "both," according to the authors of a new policy statement aimed at providing guidance for crucial decision-making for the care of patients with advanced critical illness while preventing conflicts between medical staff and family caregivers. ( ).

Fibromyalgia has central nervous system origins ::: Fibromyalgia is the second most common rheumatic disorder behind osteoarthritis and, though still widely misunderstood, is now considered to be a lifelong central nervous system disorder, which is responsible for amplified pain that shoots through the body in those who suffer from it. Researchers have analyzed the neurological basis for fibromyalgia. ( ).

Study suggests need for renal protective care in pediatric lung transplant patients ::: Caucasian and Hispanic children who undergo lung transplantation appear to be at greater risk for developing chronic kidney disease, or CKD, than other children, according to a small retrospective study. ( ).

Quantum physics on tap: Nano-sized faucet offers experimental support for longstanding quantum theory ::: Only recently has nanotechnology made it possible to reach the scale required to test the theoretical model known as the Tomonaga-Luttinger theory. Now, a team of researchers has succeeded in conducting experiments with the smallest channel yet. ( ).

New tool to save salmon: Isotope tracking ::: Salmon carry a strontium chemical signature in their "ear bones" that lets scientists identify specific streams where the fish hatched and lived before they were caught at sea. The new tool may help pinpoint critical habitats for fish threatened by climate change, industrial development and overfishing.( ).

New life for old data ::: A new article demonstrates how XML markup applied to texts using the GoldenGate editor can address the challenges presented by unstructured legacy data. The paper demonstrates how structured primary biodiversity data can be extracted from legacy sources and aggregated with and jointly queried with data from other Darwin Core-compatible sources, to present a visualization of these data that can communicate key information contained in biodiversity literature.( ).

Aging baby boomers, childless and unmarried, at risk of becoming 'elder orphans' ::: With an aging baby boomer population and increasing numbers of childless and unmarried seniors, nearly one-quarter of Americans over age 65 are currently or at risk to become 'elder orphans,' a vulnerable group requiring greater awareness and advocacy efforts, according to new research. ( ).

Men far less likely to prevent, screen for osteoporosis ::: While the consequences of osteoporosis are worse in men than women — including death — older males are far less likely to take preventive measures against the potentially devastating bone-thinning disease or accept recommendations for screening, according to startling new research.( ).

New screening method for prostate cancer recurrence ::: A common treatment for prostate cancer is a prostatectomy, in which all or part of the prostate gland is removed. Recent studies have shown that this procedure is often over-prescribed. Spatial light interference microscopy has now been used in order to identify patients at higher risk for prostate cancer recurrence, researchers report.( ).

Probing iron chemistry in the deep mantle ::: Upper mantle carbonates are magnesium-rich and iron-poor. Under lower mantle conditions, it is thought that the arrangement of electrons in carbonate minerals changes under the pressure stress in such a way that iron may be significantly redistributed. A research team has now focused on the high-pressure chemistry of a carbonate mineral called siderite, FeCO3, commonly found in hydrothermal vents. Their findings help resolve questions about the presence of iron-containing lower mantle carbonates. ( ).

Losing weight can reduce risk of death, ventilator use in lung transplant patients ::: Obesity is a complicating factor for many surgical patients. In a recent study, researchers have shown that losing weight can have a positive impact on outcomes for lung transplant patients. ( ).

Solving streptide from structure to biosynthesis ::: Bacteria speak to one another using peptide signals in a soundless language known as quorum sensing. In a step towards translating bacterial communications, researchers have revealed the structure and biosynthesis of streptide, a peptide involved in the quorum sensing system common to many streptococci. ( ).

Grass plants can transport infectious prions ::: Grass plants can bind, uptake and transport infectious prions, according to researchers. Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for a group of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, which includes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) in cattle, scrapie in sheep, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer, elk and moose. All are fatal brain diseases with incubation periods that last years. ( ).

Wearable wireless devices: Low cost radio frequency antenna printed with graphene ink::: Scientists have moved graphene — the incredibly strong and conductive single-atom-thick sheet of carbon — a significant step along the path from lab bench novelty to commercially viable material for new electronic applications. Researchers have printed a radio frequency antenna using compressed graphene ink. The antenna performed well enough to make it practical for use in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and wireless sensors, the researchers said. Even better, the antenna is flexible, environmentally friendly and could be cheaply mass-produced. ( ).

Reviving the Iban alphabet ::: A Malaysian indigenous group has revived its alphabet from the brink of extinction, thanks to specially designed computer fonts. ( ).

Used cigarette butts offer energy storage solution ::: Scientists have developed a new way to store energy that also offers a solution to a growing environmental problem.( ).

Antiviral compound may protect brain from pathogens, West Nile virus, study shows ::: An antiviral compound may protect the brain from invading pathogens, researchers have found. Studying West Nile virus infection in mice, scientists showed that interferon-lambda tightens the blood-brain barrier, making it harder for the virus to invade the brain.( ).

Smaller volumes in certain regions of the brain could lead to increased likelihood of drug addiction ::: Individual differences in brain structure could help to determine the risk for future drug addiction, new research suggests. The study found that occasional users who subsequently increased their drug use compared with those who did not, showed brain structural differences when they started using drugs. ( ).

Omega-3: Intervention for childhood behavioral problems? ::: Omega-3, a fatty acid commonly found in fish oil, may have long-term neurodevelopmental effects that ultimately reduce antisocial and aggressive behavior problems in children, a new study suggests.( ).

Phage spread antibiotic resistance ::: Nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another — or from one species to another, investigators report. ( ).

Soft-tissue engineering for hard-working cartilage ::: An international study points the way toward wider, more effective use of biocompatible materials in repairing human tissues. Focusing on the difficult case of restoring cartilage, which requires both flexibility and mechanical strength, the researchers investigated a new combination of 3-D printed microfiber scaffolding and hydrogels. They expect the new approach to have an impact on other areas of soft-tissue engineering research, including breast reconstruction and heart tissue engineering.( ).

Activity after ICD implantation may predict survival ::: Patients who stayed active following ICD implantation had better survival rates that those who did not, a study concludes. They add that Information collected by ICD devices may one day help clinicians identify and help patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes.( ).

Age-friendly communities essential to urban elders' well-being ::: The future of communities around the world will in large part be determined by the efforts to achieve a high quality of life for their older citizens, according to a new article. Age-friendly communities are designed to promote aging-in-place, which is the ability to live in one's own home and community safely, independently, and comfortably regardless of age, income, or ability level. ( ).

Cancer survivors have evolving information needs ::: Judging by the nature and topics of their information seeking, cancer patients' information needs appear to differ depending on the type of cancer they have and where they are in their survivorship. ( ).

Raising groundwater keeps valleys from sinking: Santa Clara Valley, Callifornia, USA ::: California and other parts of the western U.S. are experiencing extended severe drought conditions. The Santa Clara Valley in California underwent extensive groundwater development from the early 1900s through the mid-1960s. This development caused groundwater level declines of more than 200 feet.( ).

Exercise, however modest, found progressively beneficial to the elderly ::: Even exercise of short duration and low intensity has life expectancy benefits for the elderly. Such conclusions have been well examined in the general population, where a recommended exercise program of 30 minutes at least five days a week (or 150 minutes per week) has been shown to reduce the average risk of death by 30%. However, such a correlation between the level of physical activity and risk of death has not been so clearly determined in the elderly. Indeed, most physical activity guidelines are the same for the middle-aged adults as for the elderly, even though it is estimated that over 60% of the elderly are unable to achieve this same level of exercise.( ).

Where the rubber meets the road ::: Scientists have now uncovered new velocity and temperature-dependent properties of rubber friction on asphalt — bolstering the idea that an important component of friction originates when chains of rubber molecules repeatedly stick to the road, stretch, and then release.( ).

Pharmacists help patients control blood pressure, study finds ::: Medical teams with a pharmacist helped patients with hypertension control their blood pressure more effectively, a new study has concluded. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, increases the risk for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death for Americans.( ).

Random nanowire configurations increase conductivity over heavily ordered configurations ::: For the first time, researchers have discovered that a performance gain in the electrical conductivity of random metal nanowire networks can be achieved by slightly restricting nanowire orientation. The most surprising result of the study is that heavily ordered configurations do not outperform configurations with some degree of randomness; randomness in the case of metal nanowire orientations acts to increase conductivity. ( ).

Gardening in a polluted paradise: Is it safe? ::: Researchers have looked into how vegetables take up different soil contaminants. They also considered how different gardening practices could reduce this uptake. They found that, in the majority of examples, eating vegetables grown in the contaminated soils studied was safe. ( ).

Experimental immunotherapy shows high response rate in advanced lung cancer ::: An early phase study testing an anti-PDL1 agent in combination with standard chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer has provided promising early results, prompting multiple phase III studies in lung cancer. ( ).

Which is most valuable: Gold, cocaine or rhino horn? ::: Elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, gorillas and the majority of other very large animal species are threatened with extinction, an international team of scientists have reported. And if current trends continue, the loss of these animals would have drastic implications not only for the species themselves, but also for other animals and the environments and ecosystems in which they live. One of the critical factors behind the disturbing trend is the tremendous financial incentive for poachers to sell animal parts for consumer goods and food. For example, rhinoceros horn is more valuable by weight than gold, diamonds or cocaine, said the study's lead author. ( ).

Exploring mechanics of spider silk to design materials with high strength and low density::: Researchers explore the mechanics of silk to design materials. Coupling multiscale modeling with emerging microscale 3D-printing techniques, the team enabled a pathway to directly fabricate and test synthetic web structures by design. The lessons learned through this approach may help harness spider silk's strength for other uses, and ultimately inspire engineers to digitally design new structures and composites that are reliable and damage-resistant. ( ).

Tackling obesity needs a number of magic bullets ::: No one health issue has the most impact on human health, or engenders more debate about how to tackle it, than obesity. It has become the scourge of the health agenda, especially in the west, and it is a growing problem. Now experts weigh in on the series of challenges faced by everyone in the field of obesity care and study: from environmental and personal factors to biology, behaviour, cutting edge science, politics and public health.( ).

Even Olympic athletes have cardiac abnormalities and may be at risk of cardiovascular disease ::: Even athletes whose performance and fitness are at the very highest level may have life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities. Indeed, a study of more than 2000 athletes eligible for the summer and winter Olympic games and screened for cardiovascular health has now revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of cardiovascular conditions, some of which were considered as very serious threats to health.( ).

Fee-for-service health care may lead to higher risk for robotic prostate surgery patients ::: A 'perverse disincentive' for hospitals that have invested in expensive technology for robotic surgery may be jeopardizing prostate cancer patients who seek out the procedure, concludes a new study. ( ).

Hyenas know: It's best to make friends of friends ::: Bonding with a friend of a friend is something most humans gravitate toward naturally, or at least Facebook likes to think so every time it suggests friends for you to 'friend.' But a certain four-legged predator, the spotted hyena, seems to know the benefits of this type of social bonding instinctively, according to a new study. ( ).

Maybe dark matter is not made up of heavy particles after all ::: Scientists have conducted a simulation that explains the collision between two clusters of galaxies. Clusters of galaxies are the biggest objects that exist in the universe. They are collections of hundreds of thousands of galaxies pulled together by gravity. Rare, extreme examples of clusters caught in the act of colliding seem to be challenging the accepted view that dark matter is made up of heavy particles.( ).

Epilepsy has been found to reduce the generation of new neurons ::: The mission of neural stem cells located in the hippocampus, one of the main regions of the brain, is to generate new neurons during the adult life of mammals, and their function is to participate in certain types of learning and responses to anxiety and stress. New research has discovered that hippocampal neural stem cells in the case of epilepsy stop generating new neurons and are turned into reactive astrocytes, a cell type that promotes inflammation and alters communication between neurons. Now the researchers are exploring the potential of neural stem cells in future therapies to fight the disease. ( ).

New way to treat skin conditions: World's first mercury-free film-type ultraviolet light source::: Scientists have developed the world's first new mercury-free light source that produces ultraviolet radiation for medical applications. It is currently being certified as a medical instrument, and sales are expected to begin in October 2015. This equipment should effectively treat skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, leucoderma, and psoriasis. Because it can deliver high-intensity radiation to only the affected area, it should reduce the treatment time and patients’ stress. ( ).

Calculating the service life of bridges: Engineers refine models ::: In future, the service life of bridges may be estimated more accurate than ever before. Engineers have refined mathematical models for calculating them. Unlike previous models, they take local conditions into consideration, rather than depending on average default values.( ).

Teacherbot: Can robots do it better? ::: Opinion is often divided over whether digital innovations within education are a value or a threat to teaching. ( ).

Eenvironmental risk assessment of sub-seabed carbon dioxide storage ::: A research project of carbon dioxide in the offshore sea bed is often discussed as a means to reduce further the increase of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The project has developed recommendations for the selection and monitoring of submarine storage sites as well as an approach to a sound environmental risk assessment. 27 partner institutions from nine European countries cooperated in the project. The outcome helps to adjust regulations, and to operate sub-seabed carbon dioxide storage sites more safely. ( ).

Researchers discover new ways to shut down signals involved in brain diseases ::: A research team has found new ways to block a pathway that may be responsible for several brain disorders, which could open the door to developing better treatments. Their work is focused on the protein NOS-1, which generates nitric oxide, a chemical signal that is linked to neurological disorders from neurodegeneration, stroke and chronic pain sensitivity to anxiety and depressive disorders. ( ).

New test detects drug use from a single fingerprint ::: A new, non-invasive test that can detect cocaine use through a simple fingerprint has been presented by researchers. For the first time, this new fingerprint method can determine whether cocaine has been ingested, rather than just touched.( ).

Many probiotics are contaminated with traces of gluten ::: More than half of popular probiotics contain traces of gluten, according to an analysis. Tests on 22 top-selling probiotics revealed that 12 of them (or 55%) had detectable gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley, and patients with celiac disease need to eliminate it from their diet or face pain, bowel symptoms, and an increased risk of cancer. ( ).

Corporate greed: That gut feeling you have about your CEO is spot on ::: Researchers tested the assumption that self-interest is a universal trait of CEOs, showed that too much altruism can harm company performance, revealed the dark, self-destructive tendencies of some entrepreneurs and family-owned businesses and provided a way to measure and correlate greed, arrogance and company performance. ( ).

Towards a tunable graphene-like two-dimensional material ::: A new porous material exhibits high electrical conductivity as a bulk material that is potentially tunable and has unusual temperature dependence, suggesting new fundamental physics. ( ).

Strong evidence still lacking on medical marijuana for pain ::: With increasing numbers of chronic pain patients experimenting with marijuana to get relief, physicians need to learn more about the plant and its constituents to counsel patients appropriately about its safety and possible analgesic benefits, according to a leading medical marijuana researcher.( ).

Yoga and chronic pain have opposite effects on brain gray matter ::: Chronic pain is known to cause brain anatomy changes and impairments, but yoga can be an important tool for preventing or even reversing the effects of chronic pain on the brain, according to a new study. ( ).

Antibody's unusual abilities might inspire vaccine strategies ::: The recent discovery of a novel antibody that works in an unusual way could inspire new vaccine strategies. The antibody appears to have properties that might keep bacteria like disease-causing E. coli from adhering to human cell surfaces and also dislodge those already attached. Among the common pathogens for which researchers are seeking more effective methods to prevent adherence to human cell surfaces are the forms of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections.( ).

First large-scale graphene fabrication ::: One of the barriers to using graphene at a commercial scale could be overcome using a new method. Graphene, a material stronger and stiffer than carbon fiber, has enormous commercial potential but has been impractical to employ on a large scale, with researchers limited to using small flakes of the material.( ).

Perspective-taking difficulties diminished when autistic and psychosis tendencies balance ::: Researchers have shed new light on the relationship between autistic tendencies and psychosis proneness in neurotypical adults. The study indicates that while increased tendencies for either condition are associated with perspective-taking difficulties, unexpectedly, these difficulties are diminished in individuals with similar tendency to both autism and psychosis. ( ).

Hazing remains a concern in college marching bands, new study shows ::: Nearly a third of college marching band members surveyed in a national study observed hazing in their programs but few of the students reported the activities, often because of fears of retribution or loss of social standing, according to researchers. ( ).

Offline TV ads prompt potential online purchases by multitaskers ::: Many television advertisers fear that distracted viewers — frenetic multitaskers using smartphones, laptops and tablets while viewing TV — are less receptive to advertisers' messages. A new study refutes this and concludes that the "second screen" puts a virtual store in every consumer's pocket. Multitasking viewers now visit, browse, and even buy advertised products within moments of seeing a commercial.( ).

Link between vitamin E, exposure to air pollution ::: An association between the amount of vitamin E in the body, exposure to particulate pollution and lung function has been uncovered by a new study. The paper adds to growing evidence from previous studies suggesting that some vitamins may play a role in helping to protect the lungs from air pollution. ( ).

Half hour of physical activity 6 days a week linked to 40 percent lower risk of early death::: Thirty minutes of physical activity — irrespective of its intensity — six days a week is linked to a 40 percent lower risk of death from any cause among elderly men, finds new research. Boosting physical activity levels in this age group seems to be as good for health as giving up smoking, the findings suggest.( ).

Diabetes drug may reduce heart attack risk in HIV patients ::: A diabetes drug may have benefits beyond lower blood sugar in patients with HIV. New research suggests the drug may prevent cardiovascular problems because it works to reduce inflammation that is linked to heart disease and stroke in these patients. The drug both improved metabolism and reduced inflammation in HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy. ( ).

Study characterizes effects of severe kidney injury during pregnancy ::: The incidence of acute kidney injury that requires dialysis is 1 in 10,000 pregnancies, a new Canadian study reports; otherwise healthy women who acquire a major pregnancy-related complication are at increased risk. In pregnancies affected by severe acute kidney injury, babies are at increased risk of having low birth weights or being born prematurely, the researchers report.( ).

We’re happy and we know it, and now the research shows it ::: If you have a spring in your step and a smile on your face, you're in good company. Americans are generally a pretty happy bunch, according to a new study that aims to further our collective understanding of happiness and its root causes. With age comes happiness. Beginning with 30- to 34-year-olds, every age group gets progressively happier than the general population, peaking among those aged 65 and older. ( ).

Nerve involvement explains why some cancers are very painful ::: More than half of all cancer patients experience pain, most often associated with the malignancy type, body location and disease progression. Pain researchers report that the relationship between tumors and nerves drives persistent and breakthrough pain and tumor progression in certain types of cancers. ( ).

Genome-wide DNA study shows lasting impact of malnutrition in early pregnancy ::: Children whose mothers were malnourished at famine levels during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy had changes in DNA methylation known to suppress genes involved in growth, development, and metabolism documented at age 59. This is the first study to look at prenatal nutrition and genome-wide DNA patterns in adults exposed to severe under-nutrition at different periods of gestation.( ).

Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia ::: A new supercomputer model combined earthquake data to create 3-D tomographic images to depths of 900 km, or 560 miles below East Asia. Notable features found include a high velocity structure beneath Tibetan Plateau; and a deep mantle upwelling under Hangai dome in Mongolia.This research could help find hidden hydrocarbon resources and explore deep structures elsewhere.( ).

Who should pay the price? Profiting from selfishness ::: Social dilemmas, in which an individual profits from selfishness, unless the whole group chooses the selfish option, have long provided an academic challenge. A new study theoretically analyzes the effects of incentives and meta-incentives on resolving social dilemmas. Researchers devise and analyze a replicator dynamics model of the extended public good games to solve the issue.( ).

How our view of what makes us happy has changed in 80 years ::: Our view of what makes us happy has changed markedly since 1938. That is the conclusion of the psychologist who has recreated a famous study of happiness conducted in Bolton in 1938.( ).

Digoxin increases the risk of early death in patients with heart problems, large study shows ::: There is conflicting evidence about whether digoxin, a drug that has been used worldwide for centuries to treat heart disease, might contribute to an increase in deaths in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or congestive heart failure (CHF). Now, the largest review of all the evidence to date shows that it is associated with an increased risk of death in these patients, particularly in those being treated for AF. ( ).

Fuzzy thinking' in depression, bipolar disorder: New research finds effect is real ::: People with depression or bipolar disorder often feel their thinking ability has gotten “fuzzy”, or less sharp than before their symptoms began. Now, researchers have shown in a large study that effect is indeed real – and rooted in brain activity differences that show up on advanced brain scans. ( ).

Shale-drilling additives in drinking-water taps near leak, new technique shows ::: Substances commonly used for drilling or extracting Marcellus shale gas foamed from the drinking water taps of three Pennsylvania homes near a reported well-pad leak, according to new analysis from a team of scientists.( ).

Study finds inhibitor for COPD lung destruction::: Newly published observations in patients and experiments in mice provide evidence that cigarette smoke reduces expression of the protein NLRX1 in the lung, taking the restraints off a destructive immune response that results in COPD. The researchers hope that pinpointing the protein's role could lead to improved COPD risk assessment, diagnostics, and treatment.( ).

Racial differences in male breast cancer outcomes ::: While black and white men under age 65 diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer received similar treatment, blacks had a 76 percent higher risk of death than whites, research shows. Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers in men and approximately 2% of all breast cancers in the United States. Black men have a higher incidence of breast cancer and are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age than their white counterparts.( ).

Primary care visits available to most uninsured, but at a high price ::: Uninsured people in the United States don't have any more difficulty getting appointments with primary care doctors than those with insurance, but they get them at prices that are likely unaffordable to a typical uninsured person, according to new research.( ).

Bystander CPR helps cardiac arrest survivors return to work ::: In Denmark, more bystanders performing CPR contributed to more cardiac arrest survivors returning to work, a study concludes. Cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have diagnosed heart disease. The time and mode of death are unexpected. It occurs instantly or shortly after symptoms appear. ( ).

New link between diabetes, Alzheimer's found::: A unique connection between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease has been uncovered by researchers, providing further evidence that a disease that robs people of their memories may be affected by elevated blood sugar.( ).

Dietary supplements are good for coral health, study shows ::: Most people know the health benefits of taking daily supplements, but what about endangered corals? A new study has found that the critically endangered Staghorn coral may benefit from supplemental nutrition to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. ( ).

Real stereotypes continue to exist in virtual worlds ::: Stereotypes related to gender and appearance that burden women in the real world could follow them into virtual ones, according to researchers. In a study of how people interacted with avatars in an online game, women received less help from fellow players than men when they operated an unattractive avatar and when they used a male avatar. ( ).

Bat disease: Scientists identify tissue-degrading enzyme in white-nose syndrome ::: Scientists have figured out the likely way that white-nose syndrome breaks down tissue in bats, opening the door to potential treatments for a disease that has killed more than six million bats since 2006 and poses a threat to the agricultural industry. ( ).

Biologists shines light on origin of bioluminescence ::: Bioluminescence at least in one millipede may have evolved as a way to survive in a hot, dry environment, not as a means to ward off predators, according to scientists. ( ).

Premature birth alters brain connections ::: Premature birth can alter the connectivity between key areas of the brain, according to a new study. The findings should help researchers to better understand why premature birth is linked to a greater risk of neurodevelopmental problems, including autistic spectrum disorders and attention deficit disorders. ( ).

As the river rises: Cahokia's emergence and decline linked to Mississippi River flooding ::: As with rivers, civilizations across the world rise and fall. Sometimes, the rise and fall of rivers has something to do with it. At Cahokia, the largest prehistoric settlement in the Americas north of Mexico, new evidence suggests that major flood events in the Mississippi River valley are tied to the cultural center's emergence and ultimately, to its decline. ( ).

Researchers 'un-can' the HIV virus ::: If the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a bit like a hermetically sealed tin, can no one has yet been able to break open. The good news is that researchers have now identified a way to use a "can opener" to force the virus to open up and to expose its vulnerable parts, allowing the immune system cells to then kill the infected cells. ( ).

Scientists dramatically improve method for finding common genetic alterations in tumors::: Scientists have developed a significantly better computer tool for finding genetic alterations that play an important role in many cancers but were difficult to identify with whole-genome sequencing. The tool is an algorithm called CONSERTING, short for Copy Number Segmentation by Regression Tree in Next Generation Sequencing. ( ).

Double-digit growth for firms creating own online communities ::: Double-digit revenue growth has been observed for firms that create their own brand-specific online communities. Engaging consumers through online social networks is an increasingly mission-critical activity for major brands. While some firms host their own brand-centric online communities, Facebook has become the dominant host for online communities of brand enthusiasts, taking over $10 billion and 10% of U.S. digital advertising spending in 2014.( ).

New climate projections paint bleak future for tropical coral reefs ::: As greater atmospheric carbon dioxide boosts sea temperatures, tropical corals face a bleak future. New climate model projections show that conditions are likely to increase the frequency and severity of coral disease outbreaks, reports a team of researchers. ( ).

Chicxulub and the deccan eruptions: Just a coincidence? ::: Scientists have addressed the 'uncomfortably close' occurrence of the Chicxulub impact in the Yucatan and the most voluminous phase of the Deccan Traps flood basalt eruptions in India. Specifically, the researchers argue that the impact likely triggered most of the immense eruptions of lava in India — that indeed, this was not a coincidence, but a cause-and-effect relationship. ( ).

Recurrence of prostate cancer detected earlier with innovative PSMA-ligand PET/CT ::: A recent study compared use of the novel Ga-68-PSMA-ligand PET/CT with other imaging methods and found that it had substantially higher detection rates of prostate-specific membrane antigen in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. It is especially noteworthy that this hybrid PSMA-ligand identified a large number of positive findings in the clinically important range of low PSA-values. ( ).

Cellular bubbles used to deliver Parkinson's meds directly to brain ::: Exosomes could help with longstanding medical issues from cancer diagnosis to sophisticated research tool. Now, they could potentially help with delivering potent antioxidants into the brain of Parkinson's patients. ( ).

Combining computer vision, brain computer interface for faster mine detection ::: Computer scientists have combined sophisticated computer vision algorithms and a brain-computer interface to find mines in sonar images of the ocean floor. The study shows that the new method speeds detection up considerably, when compared to existing methods — mainly visual inspection by a mine detection expert. ( ).

Puget Sound's clingfish could inspire better medical devices, whale tags ::: Researchers are looking at how the biomechanics of clingfish could be helpful in designing devices and instruments to be used in surgery and even to tag and track whales in the ocean. Clingfish are considered one of the world's best suction cups,scientists say. ( ).

Detecting knee-cushion problems early could lead to better treatments ::: The menisci, best known as the shock absorbers in the knee, help disperse pressure, reduce friction and nourish the knee. Now, new research shows even small changes in the menisci can hinder their ability to perform critical knee functions.( ).

Moderate exercise may make cancer treatments more effective, kinesiologist finds::: Kinesiology research offers encouraging information for cancer patients: A brisk walk or a slow jog on a regular basis may be the key to improved cancer treatments. Research also has shown that moderate exercise can help cancer patients counteract some of the side effects of treatment — such as low blood count, fatigue, cachexia and lost muscle mass — which has led to many researchers labeling this as "aerobic exercise therapy" for patients with cancer.( ).

Discovery could help reverse glucocorticoid resistance in some young leukemia patients ::: Scientists have identified a mechanism that helps leukemia cells resist glucocorticoids, a finding that lays the foundation for more effective treatment of cancer and possibly a host of autoimmune diseases. The research focused on glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones. ( ).

Gigantic whales have stretchy 'bungee cord' nerves ::: Biologists have discovered a unique nerve structure in the mouth and tongue of rorqual whales that can double in length and then recoil like a bungee cord. The stretchy nerves explain how the massive whales are able to balloon an immense pocket between their body wall and overlying blubber to capture prey during feeding dives. ( ).

How does a mobile DNA sequence find its target? ::: To understand how transposable elements shape genomes, where they are maintained over generations, it is vital to discover the mechanisms behind their targeted integration. Researchers have identified an interaction between two proteins that is essential for the integration of a transposable element into a specific area of the yeast genome. ( ).

Youth just as likely to try e-cigarettes as smoking ::: Young people are just as likely to try electronic cigarettes as smoking, according to a new report. The findings reveal that approximately 20 per cent of youth between the ages of 15 and 19 experiment with vaping, the same number who try cigarettes.( ).

Cost-effective expert recommended asthma test underutilized by physicians, study shows::: For the first time, researchers have found that spirometry was underutilized for asthma diagnosis and management in US adults from 2001 to 2011, despite its accuracy, cost effectiveness and the publication of national guidelines advocating its use. Spirometry is a common test that allows physicians to determine how well a person's lungs work by measuring how much air is inhaled and exhaled as well as how quickly the air is exhaled.( ).

Revolutionary method of making RNAs ::: Scientists — and ultimately patients — could benefit from a new approach to making ribonucleic acids. ( ).

Fjords are 'hotspots' in global carbon cycling::: While fjords are celebrated for their beauty, these ecosystems are also major carbon sinks that likely play an important role in the regulation of the planet's climate, new research reveals. ( ).

Study points to possible treatment for lethal pediatric brain cancer ::: Using brain tumor samples collected from children in the United States and Europe, an international team of scientists found that the drug panobinostat and similar gene regulating drugs may be effective at treating diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, an aggressive and lethal form of pediatric cancer. ( ).

Defects in atomically thin semiconductor emit single photons ::: Researchers have shown that defects on an atomically thin semiconductor can produce light-emitting quantum dots. The quantum dots serve as a source of single photons and could be useful for the integration of quantum photonics with solid-state electronics — a combination known as integrated photonics. ( ).

Mystery of India’s rapid move toward Eurasia 80 million years ago explained ::: In the history of continental drift, India has been a mysterious record-holder. More than 140 million years ago, India was part of an immense supercontinent called Gondwana, which covered much of the Southern Hemisphere. Around 120 million years ago, what is now India broke off and started slowly migrating north, at about 5 centimeters per year. ( ).

School competitive food policies appears tied to neighborhood socioeconomics ::: Policy changes in California to make the food and beverages that compete with school meal programs more healthy for students appear to have improved childhood overweight/obesity prevalence trends, although improvement was better among students attending schools in socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods.( ).

Study examines incidence of concussion in youth, high school, college football ::: A slight majority of concussions happened during youth football games but most concussions at the high school and college levels occurred during practice, according to a new article.( ).

Kids likely to sleepwalk if parents have history of nocturnal strolls ::: More than 60 percent of children developed sleepwalking when both their parents were sleepwalkers in a study among children born in the Canadian province of Quebec. ( ).

Scientists reconcile three unrelated theories of schizophrenia ::: A new study in mice links three previously unrelated hypotheses about the causes of schizophrenia, a debilitating mental disorder that affects how people think, act and perceive reality. The new findings may eventually lead to treatment strategies targeted for the underlying causes of schizophrenia and related disorders. ( ).

Foundations of heart regeneration uncovered: Outer layer of heart must be healed first ::: Medical researchers have found that a key to the zebrafish's ability to regenerate cardiac tissue lies in the outer layer of the heart known as the epicardium. When this critical layer is damaged, the whole repair process is delayed as the epicardium undergoes a round of self-healing before tending to the rest of the heart. The finding points to a possible target for repairing the damage caused by a heart attack.( ).

Juvenile shale gas in Sweden ::: Considering geological time scales, the occurrence of biogenic shale gas in Sweden´s crust is relatively young. Geoscientists found that biogenic methane in the Alum Shale in South Sweden formed due to deglaciation around 12 years ago. Moreover, the formation processes were due to complex interactions between neotectonic activity and the occurrence of a deep biosphere. Applying a new hydrogeochemical modelling approach, the specific methane generation process was unraveled and quantified for the first time in Europe. ( ).

Human clinical trials begin for deadly hendra virus therapy ::: The world’s first human clinical trials for a treatment against Hendra virus, a rare but deadly viral disease, have just begun in Australia, using a human monoclonal antibody.( ).

Evidence of briny water on Mars ::: Data collected on Mars by NASA's Curiosity rover indicate that water, in the form of brine, may exist under certain conditions on the planet's surface. ( ).

Researchers hope to improve dental health by changing caregiver's behavior ::: Studies have long associated low-income areas with poor oral health. But dental researchers have sensed that other factors related to income may be at work — in particular, education level. So they recently investigated how a parent or other caregiver's education level and dental habits affect children's dental health. ( ).

Lens turns smartphone into a microscope: Costs only 3 cents ::: Researchers have created an optical lens that can be placed on an inexpensive smartphone to magnify images by a magnitude of 120, all for just 3 cents a lens.( ).

Pollen and clouds: April flowers bring May showers? ::: The main job of pollen is to help seed the next generation of trees and plants, but a new study shows that the grains might also seed clouds. ( ).

The random raman laser: A new light source for the microcosmos ::: Researchers have demonstrated for the first time that a newly emerging technique known as random Raman lasing emission can produce a bright, speckle-free, strobe light source with potential application in high-speed wide-field microscopy.( ).

Personal cues can have a strong effect on craving in individuals with addiction ::: Unique person-specific cues — such as the presence of a specific friend or hearing a specific song — appear to have a robust effect on craving addictive substances, a recent study shows. The study also found that person-specific cues may have a longer effect on craving than more general substance-specific cues, such as the presence of bottles, syringes, or lighters.( ).

Lab test commonly used to assess water toxicity may not predict effects on field populations ::: Hyalella azteca are invertebrates that are widely used for sediment and water toxicity studies. Investigators have found that H. azteca collected from sites influenced by agricultural/urban runoff are as much as 2-times less sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides than lab-grown H. azteca. In contrast, the insecticide sensitivities of H. azteca collected from undeveloped sites beyond the influences of agricultural/urban runoff were similar to those of lab-grown populations.( ).

Psychological technique helps smokers quite tobacco ::: Researchers have demonstrated that motivational interviewing can make smokers see tobacco as something disagreeable, thus helping them to quit the habit. Motivational interviewing is a psychological technique of direct intervention that seeks to produce changes in patient behavior. ( ).

Ocean currents disturb methane-eating bacteria ::: Bacteria that feed on methane can control its concentration once it is released from the ocean floor. This can potentially stop the greenhouse gas from entering the atmosphere. But ocean currents can easily disturb dinner, according to a new study.( ).

Sixth DNA base discovered? ::: Is there a sixth DNA base? A team of researchers suggests that the methyl-adenine that would regulate the expression of certain genes in eukaryotic cells could have a specific role in stem cells and in early stages of development.( ).

Warm oceans caused hottest Dust Bowl years in 1934/36 ::: Ocean hotspots that caused the record heat during the Dust Bowl years may help long range forecasters predict the likelihood of extremely hot summers in Central US months ahead, scientists say.( ).

Impact of family, neighborhood on mental health revealed in comprehensive study ::: A team of researchers from Sweden and the United States has examined the potential role of the family environment and neighborhood factors on mental health outcomes in a new study. The study includes highly detailed data on over 500,000 children in Sweden and covers a timespan of more than a decade. During the course of the study, 4.8 percent of the children developed a psychiatric disorder.( ).

Undersea volcano: Axial Seamount off Northwest coast is erupting ::: Axial Seamount, an active underwater volcano located about 300 miles off the coast of Oregon and Washington, appears to be erupting — after two scientists had forecast that such an event would take place there in 2015. ( ).

New test predicts sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients ::: A new test has been developed to predict sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients in whom such forecasts were previously impossible. The novel method uses a combination of nuclear medicine, C-reactive protein and electrocardiogram.( ).

From brittle to plastic in one breath ::: A new theory shows it may be possible to turn brittle two-dimensional materials into superplastics simply by changing the environmental conditions around them. ( ).

Exposure to air pollution in the first year of life increases risk for allergies ::: Exposure to outdoor air pollution during the first year of life increases the risk of developing allergies to food, mould, pets and pests, new research concludes. The study showed that the sensitivity to allergens was associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution during infancy. ( ).

Rapid innovation in semiconductors provides hope for better economic times ::: A new study reveals that innovation in an important technology sector is happening faster than experts had previously thought, creating a backdrop for better economic times ahead.( ).

European banks as vulnerable now as before crash ::: European banks are as vulnerable to failing today as they were in the run-up to the 2008 global economic crash and subsequent recession, new research has found. In the first study to compare sources of systemic risk in European banks, economists found banks in southern countries, including France, Spain and Italy, are highly vulnerable to failure. Banks in northern countries appear to be more resilient.( ).

Children exposed to multiple languages may be better natural communicators ::: Young children who hear more than one language spoken at home become better communicators, a new study finds. ( ).

New report: First compilation of global addictions ::: The world's first comprehensive report on global addictions has revealed that Australians smoke less tobacco and drink less alcohol than the British, but Aussies take more illicit drugs. ( ).

Important step in artificial intelligence: Stylized letters classified by their images ::: A circuit implementing the rudimentary artificial neural network successfully classified three letters by their images. ( ).

Vineyard habitats help butterflies return ::: Wine grape vineyards experimenting with sustainable pest management systems are seeing an unexpected benefit: an increase in butterflies. Over the years, loss in natural habitat has seen the decline in numbers of around 50 species of butterflies in eastern Washington. ( ).

New device could greatly improve speech and image recognition ::: Researchers have successfully demonstrated pattern recognition using a magnonic holographic memory device, a development that could greatly improve speech and image recognition hardware.( ).

Tortoise approach works best, even for evolution ::: When it comes to winning evolutionary fitness races, the tortoise once again prevails over the hare. Scientists have found that limiting migrations among populations of bacteria produced better adaptations. ( ).

Breaking through the blood-brain barrier ::: The bacteria that sneak past the brain's defenses to cause deadly bacterial meningitis are clever adversaries. New research investigates the molecular tricks bacteria use to convince their host that they are harmless and cause disease. ( ).

Men with high estrogen levels could be at greater risk of breast cancer ::: Men with naturally high levels of the female hormone estrogen may have a greater risk of developing breast cancer, according to research by an international collaboration. This is the first time a link between estrogen levels in the blood and male breast cancer has been identified, despite its connection to breast, womb and ovarian cancers in women. ( ).

Brain protein linked to binge-drinking behavior::: Scientists have discovered that a brain protein has a key role in controlling binge drinking in animal models. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, binge drinking — defined as drinking to the point of intoxication — puts people at greater risk for health problems such as cardiovascular disease, liver disease and neurological damage.( ).

Researchers investigate an enzyme important for nervous system health ::: Scientists have mapped out the structure of an important protein involved in cellular function and nervous system development. The new structure provides crucial information for understanding how the protein binds to cellular components. It's also the first structure determined of any ligase in the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) family. ( ).

Bioprinting in 3-D: Looks like candy, could regenerate nerve cells ::: Researchers are working on 3-D bioprinting synthetic tissue that could help regenerate nerve cells in patients with spinal cord injuries. ( ).

First cancer-promoting oncogenes discovered in rare brain tumor of children and adults ::: Researchers have identified three genes that play a pivotal role in the brain tumor choroid plexus carcinoma, a discovery that lays the groundwork for more effective treatment of this rare, often fatal cancer. ( ).

Congress approval rating tanking over poor choice of words ::: US Congress approval ratings are at record lows. Now a new study suggests that this may be partly due to a decline in the use of warm, agreeable language in the House. ( ).

Not just a flavoring:' Menthol, nicotine combined desensitize airway receptors ::: Menthol acts in combination with nicotine to desensitize the type of nicotinic receptors found in lungs and airways that are responsible for nicotine's irritation, say researchers. They say their findings suggests menthol is not just a flavoring, but has an important pharmacologic effect. ( ).

80 percent of cervical cancers found to be preventable with latest 9-valent HPV vaccine ::: The new 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine, can potentially prevent 80 percent of cervical cancers in the United States, if given to all 11- or 12-year-old children before they are exposed to the virus. The study also found the 9-Valent vaccine, under the trademark of Gardasil-9, has the potential to protect against an additional 8 percent of oropharyngeal cancers, which include the base of the tongue and tonsils. This disease is the second-most-common HPV-associated cancer. ( ).

Healing plants inspire new compounds for psychiatric drugs ::: Treatments used by traditional healers in Nigeria have inspired scientists to synthesize four new chemical compounds that could one day lead to better therapies for people with psychiatric disorders.( ).

Tuning up Rydberg atoms for quantum information applications ::: Rydberg atoms, atoms whose outermost electrons are highly excited but not ionized, might be just the thing for processing quantum information. These outsized atoms can be sustained for a long time in a quantum superposition condition — a good thing for creating qubits — and they can interact strongly with other such atoms, making them useful for devising the kind of logic gates needed to process information.( ).

School segregation still impacts African-Americans' minds decades later ::: As the United States observes the May 17 anniversary of the Supreme Court decision that ended racial segregation in public schools, a new study has found that desegregated schooling is tied to better performance for certain cognitive abilities in older African-American adults.( ).

Global health leaders call for global biomedical research and development fund, mechanism::: World leaders should consider the establishment of a global biomedical research and development fund and a mechanism to address the dearth in innovation for today's most pressing global health challenges, according global health leaders.( ).

Ease of weight loss influenced by individual biology ::: For the first time in a lab, researchers have found evidence supporting the commonly held belief that people with certain physiologies lose less weight than others when limiting calories. At this time, researchers do not know whether the biological differences are innate or develop over time.( ).

Personal microbiomes shown to contain unique 'fingerprints' ::: A new study shows that the microbial communities we carry in and on our bodies known as the human microbiome have the potential to uniquely identify individuals, much like a fingerprint. Scientists demonstrated that personal microbiomes contain enough distinguishing features to identify an individual over time from among a research study population of hundreds of people. The study is the first to show that identifying people from microbiome data is feasible.( ).

Massive southern invasions by northern birds linked to climate shifts ::: Scientists have pinpointed the climate pattern that likely sets the stage for boreal bird irruptions in which vast numbers of northern birds migrate far south of their usual winter range. The discovery could make it possible to predict the events more than a year in advance.( ).

DNA with self-interest: Transposable element conquers new strain of fly ::: Transposable elements are DNA sequences that are capable of changing their genome position by cut and paste or copy and paste through the enzyme transposase. This ability can be harmful for hosts if transposable elements destroy functioning genes, but it can also bring advantages. From an evolutionary point of view, transposable elements diversify the genome and open up chances for adaptation.( ).

Survey finds miscarriage widely misunderstood::: Misperceptions about miscarriage and its causes are widespread, a survey of more than 1,000 U.S. adults has found. Results of the survey show that feelings of guilt and shame are common after a miscarriage and that most people erroneously believe that miscarriages are rare. ( ).

Did ocean acidification from asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs cause extinction of marine molluscs? ::: New research has questioned the role played by ocean acidification, produced by the asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs, in the extinction of ammonites and other planktonic calcifiers 66 million years ago. ( ).

For children with autism, trips to the dentist just got easier ::: Adjusting the environment of a dentist's office can make routine cleanings less stressful for children with autism, research shows. Children with autism spectrum disorders — as well as some typically developing children — often show heightened responses to sensory input and find these sensations uncomfortable. As such, the dental office, with its bright lights, loud sounds from the dental equipment, and touch of children in and around the mouth, present particular challenges for such children.( ).

For the first time, scientists tag a loggerhead sea turtle off US West Coast ::: Fifty miles out to sea from San Diego, in the middle of April, under a perfectly clear blue sky, fisheries scientists leaned over the side of a rubber inflatable boat and lowered a juvenile loggerhead sea turtle into the water. That turtle was a trailblazer — the first of its kind ever released off the West Coast of the United States with a satellite transmitter attached.( ).

Carbon emissions from peatlands may be less than expected ::: Researchers have discovered a dual mechanism that slows peat decay and may help reduce carbon dioxide emissions from peatlands during times of drought. The discovery might be used to reduce the risk that increased drought and global warming will change Earth's peatlands from carbon sinks into carbon sources, as many scientists have feared. ( ).

Research aims to restore riparian corridors and an iconic tree ::: Beginning on May 11, Forest Service scientists will plant different combinations of tree and shrub species in four riparian areas on the Finger Lakes National Forest in New York and monitor the success of these different treatments for improving carbon and nitrogen ratios in the soil as well as plant, insect and wildlife biodiversity. Another purpose of the research is to evaluate whether degraded stream corridors are suitable habitats for reintroduction of a forest icon, the American elm. ( ).

Gene responsible for hypertension, brachydactyly identified ::: Individuals with a newly discovered altered gene have hereditary hypertension and a skeletal malformation, brachydactyly type E, which is characterized by unusually short fingers and toes, scientists report. The effect on blood pressure is so serious that — if left untreated — it most often leads to death before age fifty.( ).

New, high-volume joining process expands use of aluminum in autos ::: A new joining process enables the production of all-aluminum auto parts without rivets and fasteners that increase cost and weight. ( ).

Watch invisible gravity waves rumble through the atmosphere ::: Just as waves ripple across a pond when a tossed stone disturbs the water's surface, gravity waves ripple toward space from disturbances in the lower atmosphere. ( ).

Solving corrosive ocean mystery reveals future climate ::: Around 55 million years ago, an abrupt global warming event triggered a highly corrosive deep-water current through the North Atlantic Ocean. The current's origin puzzled scientists for a decade, but an international team of researchers has now discovered how it formed and the findings may have implications for the carbon dioxide emission sensitivity of today's climate. ( ).

Computer simulation accurately replicated real-life trauma outcomes ::: A computer simulation, or 'in silico' model, of the body's inflammatory response to traumatic injury accurately replicated known individual outcomes and predicted population results counter to expectations, according to a study.( ).

New cause discovered for arterial stiffness, a contributor to cardiovascular disease ::: Previous studies of aortic stiffness have focused on changes in structural proteins that alter the properties of vascular walls causing them to become rigid. Now, researchers have determined that smooth muscle cells, which line the interior of vascular walls, are a major contributing factor to vascular stiffness, one of the major causes of hypertension. Researchers believe that results from their study could help provide new possibilities for drug treatments for the disease. ( ).

New research implicates immune system in Rett syndrome ::: The immune system plays an unsuspected and surprising role in the progression of Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disorder affecting children, new research suggests. Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused primarily by mutations in the gene encoding for MeCP2, an important epigenetic regulator. Children with the disorder appear to develop normally but begin to lose acquired cognitive and motor skills at 6 to 18 months of age as symptoms start to show. As they age, patients are unable to acquire verbal skills and suffer from lack of motor control.( ).

Narrow misses can propel us toward other rewards, goals ::: Whether it's being outbid at the last second in an online auction or missing the winning lottery number by one digit, we often come so close to something we can 'almost taste it' only to lose out in the end. These 'near wins' may actually boost our motivation to achieve other wins, leading us to pursue totally unrelated rewards, according to new research. ( ).

Losing streak: Competitive high-school sports linked to gambling ::: High-schoolers involved in competitive sports are at an elevated risk of addictive gambling, a new study concludes. According to the research, the participation of male high-school students in competitive sports is associated with problem gambling and gambling frequency, and female students who participate in competitive sports are at a higher risk of gambling frequency.( ).

Scientists show 'breaking waves' perturb Earth's magnetic field ::: The underlying physical process that creates striking 'breaking wave' cloud patterns in our atmosphere also frequently opens the gates to high-energy solar wind plasma that perturbs Earth's magnetic field, or magnetosphere, which protects us from cosmic radiation. The discovery was made by space physicists. ( ).

Study links father's age, baby's risk of blood cancer as an adult ::: The proportion of parents who delay having children until age 35 or older continues to increase, but the long-term health consequences for these children are still emerging. A father's age at his infant's birth is linked to the risk that his child will develop blood and immune system cancers as an adult, particularly for only children, a new study concludes. ( ).

Velociraptor, move over: New dinosaur's keen nose made it a formidable predator ::: Scientists have identified a species of dinosaur closely related to Velociraptor, the group of creatures made infamous by the movie 'Jurassic Park.' The newly named species likely possessed a keen sense of smell that would have made it a formidable predator. ( ).

Toddlers understand sound they make influences others, research shows ::: Confirming what many parents already know, researchers have discovered that toddlers, especially those with siblings, understand how the sounds they make affect people around them. ( ).

Robot pets to rise in an overpopulated world::: Robotic dogs are likely to replace the real thing in households worldwide in as little as a decade, as our infatuation with technology grows and more people migrate to high-density city living. ( ).

Harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay are becoming more frequent ::: A recent study of harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries shows an increase in ecosystem-disrupting events in the past 20 years being fed by excess nitrogen runoff from the watershed. While blooms have long been a concern, this study is the first to document their increased frequency in the Bay. Similar events are happening around the world.( ).

Starved T cells allow hepatitis B to silently infect liver ::: Hepatitis B stimulates processes that deprive the body's immune cells of key nutrients that they need to function, finds new research. The work helps to explain why the immune system cannot control hepatitis B virus infection once it becomes established in the liver, and offers a target for potential curative treatments down the line. ( ).

First theoretical proof: Measurement of a single nuclear spin in biological samples ::: Physicists were able to show that the nuclear spins of single molecules can be detected with the help of magnetic particles at room temperature. The researchers describe a novel experimental setup with which the tiny magnetic fields of the nuclear spins of single biomolecules — undetectable so far — could be registered for the first time. The proposed concept would improve medical diagnostics in a decisive step forward. ( ).

Using CRISPR, biologists find a way to comprehensively identify anti-cancer drug targets ::: Imagine having a complete catalog of the best drug targets to hit in a deadly form of cancer. Imagine having a master catalog of such targets for all major cancers. Scientists have now published a method of doing precisely this, using the revolutionary gene-editing technology called CRISPR. ( ).

Repurposed anti-cholesterol drug could improve treatment-resistant anemias ::: Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, is usually diagnosed during childhood and is typically treated with glucocorticoids that cause a host of unwanted, often dangerous side effects. Using a mouse model, a research team has now determined that combining the cholesterol-lowering drug fenofibrate with glucocorticoids could allow for dramatically lower steroid doses in the treatment of DBA and other erythropoietin-resistant anemias. These promising results are the foundation for a clinical trial that will begin soon.( ).

Study sheds new light on low-light vision, could aid people with retinal deficits ::: Driving down a dimly lit road at midnight can tax even those with 20/20 vision, but according to a recent study, the brain processes the experience no differently than if it were noon. The same study also reveals how quickly the brain adapts to vision loss, contradicting earlier research and opening the door to novel treatments. ( ).

Study may suggest new strategies for myelodysplastic syndromes treatment ::: A study revealing fresh insight about chromosome "tails" called telomeres may provide scientists with a new way to look at developing treatments or even preventing a group of blood cell disorders known as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).( ).

Noise produces volcanic seismicity, akin to a drumbeat ::: Volcanoes are chaotic systems. They are difficult to model because the geophysical and chemical parameters in volcanic eruptions exhibit high levels of uncertainty. Scientists have further extended an eruption model to the friction force at work between the volcanic plug and volcanic conduit surface. The results provide evidence that volcanic activity can be induced by external noises that would not otherwise have been predicted by the model. ( ).

Turning point in the physics of blood ::: Researchers lay out an equation that yields simple predictions as to how quickly blood cells will migrate away from blood-vessel walls, how they will behave when they collide with each other and accordingly how they will segregate during flow. ( ).

Water fleas genetically adapt to climate change::: The water flea has genetically adapted to climate change. Biologists compared 'resurrected' water fleas — hatched from 40-year-old eggs — with more recent specimens to reach this conclusion. ( ).

Top 100' papers in lumbar spine surgery reflect trends in low back pain treatment ::: What are the most influential studies on surgery of the lower (lumbar) spine? ( ).

Acute kidney injury linked to pre-existing kidney health, study finds ::: Physicians treating hospitalized patients for conditions unrelated to the kidneys should pay close attention to common blood and urine tests for kidney function in order to prevent incidental injury to the organs that help cleanse the body of toxins, new research suggests.( ).

Method for determining possible stress marker in blood samples ::: A research collaboration has resulted in the development of a new method with diagnostic potential. The new method that combines phase extraction with an enzymatic reaction may eventually be used for an improved and faster screening analysis of isatin as a potential indicator of stress and neurological disorders. ( ).

Research paper with 2,863 authors expands knowledge of bacteriophages ::: An American undergraduate science program delves deeply into the bacteriophage genome, and publishes a paper with the second-highest number of authors in history, most of them students.( ).

Graphene holds key to unlocking creation of wearable electronic devices ::: Groundbreaking research has successfully created the world's first truly electronic textile, using the wonder material, graphene. ( ).

Advanced viral gene therapy eradicates prostate cancer in preclinical experiments ::: Even with the best available treatments, the median survival of patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer is only two to three years. Driven by the need for more effective therapies for these patients, researchers have developed a unique approach that uses microscopic gas bubbles to deliver directly to the cancer a viral gene therapy in combination with an experimental drug that targets a specific gene driving the cancer's growth. ( ).

Wetlands continue to reduce nitrates ::: Wetlands created 20 years ago between tile-drained agricultural fields and the Embarras River were recently revisited for a new two-year research project. Results show an overall 62 percent nitrate removal rate and little emission of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas.( ).

Kissing cousins, arranged marriages and genetic diversity ::: In the first study of its kind, a research team has examined the effects of arranged marriages on genetic diversity. From hemophilia and color blindness amongst British and Russian monarchies, people have long known the potential damaging genetic consequences of inbreeding. But until recently, no one could measure or understand the impact of marriage rules on genetic diversity.( ).

Trigger identified that likely unleashes autoimmune disease ::: Researchers believe they have discovered a group of cells that trigger autoimmune disease, as well as the molecular 'trigger guard' that normally holds them in check. These previously undetected cells are renegade versions of the cells that make the 'high affinity' antibodies required for long-term immunity. ( ).

Dedicated scientists and volunteers working to better understand rare abalone species ::: Researchers are working with a Citizen Science Group to improve our understanding of southern California abalone populations.( ).

A metal composite that will (literally) float your boat ::: Researchers have demonstrated a new metal matrix composite that is so light that it can float on water. A boat made of such composites will not sink despite damage to its structure. This first lightweight syntactic foam also holds promise for automotive fuel economy because of its heat resistance. The magnesium alloy matrix composite is reinforced with silicon carbide hollow particles and is strong enough to withstand rigorous conditions faced in the marine environment. ( ).

Male hormones help lemur females rule ::: Lemur girls behave more like the guys, thanks to a little testosterone, finds a new study. When it comes to conventional gender roles, lemurs — distant primate cousins of ours — buck the trend. Researchers say females have significantly lower testosterone levels than the males across the board. But when they compared six lemur species, they found that females of species where females dominate have higher testosterone than females of more egalitarian species. ( ).

Smoking and angioplasty: Not a good combination ::: Quitting smoking when you have angioplasty is associated with better quality of life and less chest pain. People who continued to smoke after angioplasty had much worse chest pain and quality of life compared to non-smokers, a study concludes. Researchers recommend that patients work with healthcare providers to break smoking habits to maximize angioplasty benefits. ( ).

Huntington's disease monkeys display progressive clinical changes and neurodegeneration ::: A preclinical, large animal model of Huntington's disease has been developed for assessing new therapeutics, which could ultimately provide better treatment options, possibly including altering the course of the disease. ( ).

A sobering thought: One billion smokers and 240 million people with alcohol use disorder, worldwide ::: A new study has compiled the best, most up-to-date evidence on addictive disorders globally. It shows that almost 5 percent of the world's adult population (240 million people) have an alcohol use disorder and more than 20 percent (1 billion people) smoke tobacco. Getting good data on other drugs such as heroin and cannabis is much more difficult but for comparison the number of people injecting drugs is estimated at around 15 million worldwide. ( ).

Using decisional bias as an implicit measure of moral judgment ::: The act of identifying a perpetrator does not just involve memory and thinking, but also constitutes a moral decision. This is because, by the act of identifying or not identifying someone, the eyewitness runs the risk of either convicting an innocent person or letting a guilty person go free. A recently published article explores moral development in terms of children's eyewitness identification.( ).

Breakthrough in tinnitus research could lead to testable model ::: A major breakthrough has been made that provides new insights into how tinnitus, and the often co-occurring hyperacusis, might develop and be sustained. Tinnitus is largely a mystery, a phantom sound heard in the absence of actual sound. Tinnitus patients "hear" ringing, buzzing or hissing in their ears much like an amputee might "feel" pain in a missing limb. It is a symptom, not a disease, and though exposure to loud noise may cause it, some cases have no apparent trigger. ( ).

Artificial photosynthesis: New, stable photocathode with great potential ::: Scientists have developed a new composite photocathode for generating hydrogen using sunlight. The photocathode consists of a thin film of chalcopyrite coated with a newly developed thin film of titanium dioxide containing platinum nanoparticles. This layer protects the chalcopyrite thin film from corrosion, it acts as a catalyst to speed-up formation of hydrogen even shows photoelectric current density and voltage comparable to those of a chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cell. ( ).

Many fixed-dose drug combinations in India lack central regulatory approval ::: Fixed-dose drug combinations which have not received central regulatory approval are sold in substantial numbers in India — despite concerns over the safety and efficacy of these combinations — according to new research.( ).

Weather forecasts made for planets beyond our solar system ::: Using sensitive observations from the Kepler space telescope, astronomers have uncovered evidence of daily weather cycles on six extra-solar planets seen to exhibit different phases. Such phase variations occur as different portions of these planets reflect light from their stars, similar to the way our own moon cycles though different phases. Among the findings are indications of cloudy mornings on four of them and hot, clear afternoons on two others.( ).

College readiness declines when school's focus is improving test scores, study finds ::: Standardized testing, school accountability measures negatively affect college readiness and learning at a Texas high school when teachers focus on improving mandated test scores. ( ).

Detection of spin of atoms at room temperature theoretically demonstrated ::: For the first time, a researcher has theoretically demonstrated that it is possible to detect a single nuclear spin at room temperature, which could pave the way for new approaches to medical diagnostics. ( ).

Discovery provides insight into development of autoimmunity ::: The action of a gene that regulates the education of T cells has been uncovered by researchers, providing insight into how and why the immune system begins mistaking the body's own tissues for targets.( ).

Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt, NASA research reveals ::: NASA laboratory experiments suggest the dark material coating some geological features of Jupiter's moon Europa is likely sea salt from a subsurface ocean, discolored by exposure to radiation. The presence of sea salt on Europa's surface suggests the ocean is interacting with its rocky seafloor — an important consideration in determining whether the icy moon could support life. ( ).

Scientists regenerate bone tissue using only proteins secreted by stem cells ::: Scientists have discovered a way to regrow bone tissue using the protein signals produced by stem cells. This technology could help treat victims who have experienced major trauma to a limb, like soldiers wounded in combat or casualties of a natural disaster. The new method improves on older therapies by providing a sustainable source for fresh tissue and reducing the risk of tumor formation that can arise with stem cell transplants. ( ).

Nerve cells in the fast lane ::: Researchers have identified in what way a specific form of dopamine producing cells is generated and which networks it forms in the course of brain development. In the process, the researchers discovered a data highway of sorts: the nerve cells use not only dopamine for signal transmission, but also the much-faster glutamate. ( ).

Prenatal exercise lowers risks of C-sections, higher birth weights ::: Pregnant women who exercise can significantly lower the risk of undergoing cesarean sections and giving birth to large babies, a study has found. Prenatal exercise has been suggested to be a means to prevent childhood obesity through a "normalization" in birth weight (ie. reducing the risk of having a large baby at birth).( ).

siRNA-toting nanoparticles inhibit breast cancer metastasis ::: Researchers combined finely crafted nanoparticles with one of nature's potent disrupters to prevent the spread of triple-negative breast cancer in mouse models. The researchers are working toward clinical trials and exploring use of the technology for other cancers and diseases.( ).

Plant breeder boosts soybean diversity, develops soybean rust-resistant plant ::: It took decades of painstaking work, but a research geneticist managed to cross a popular soybean variety with a related wild perennial plant that grows like a weed in Australia, producing the first fertile soybean plants that are resistant to soybean rust, soybean cyst nematode and other pathogens of soy.( ).

How the brain balances hearing between our ears ::: Researchers have answered the longstanding question of how the brain balances hearing between our ears, which is essential for localizing sound, hearing in noisy conditions and for protection from noise damage. ( ).

Shifting winds: An early warning for reduced energy ::: Chinook winds can precede large shifts in wind power output from wind farms — a challenge for companies seeking to provide a constant stream of green energy to consumers. By establishing a connection between local meteorological events and power grid output, the researchers hope that they may ultimately help grid operators more accurately predict fluctuations in flow and manage the grid accordingly. ( ).

Feds approve wider testing of spinach defenses against citrus greening disease ::: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved an Experimental Use Permit under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.( ).

Food dye, near infrared light can aid in breast resection ::: Roughly 1 in 4 women having breast conserving surgery (BCS) return to the surgical suite for further resection because of cancerous tissue left behind due to unclear margins. A research team focuses on coming up with a practical solution that both preserves the surgical practice of inking the margins of breast cancer tumors, and allows quality imaging post-inking. ( ).

Finding should enhance treatments that stop immune system attacks ::: An important discovery has been made about an immune cell that is already being used in immunotherapy to treat diseases such as type I diabetes. The work details how regulatory T cells can cure inflammatory diseases, researchers say.( ).

The weakest magnetic field in the solar system::: Magnetic fields easily penetrate matter. Creating a space practically devoid of magnetic fields thus presents a great challenge. An international team of physicists has now developed a shielding that dampens low frequency magnetic fields more than a million-fold. Using this mechanism, they have created a space that boasts the weakest magnetic field of our solar system. The physicists now intend to carry out precision experiments there.( ).

Cause of regression in individuals with down syndrome identified ::: Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal disorder in America, can be complicated by significant deterioration in movement, speech and functioning in some adolescents and young adults. Physicians previously attributed this regression to depression or early-onset Alzheimer's, and it has not responded to treatments. Now, a researcher has found that Catatonia, a treatable disorder, may cause regression in patients with Down syndrome. Individuals with regressive Down syndrome who were treated for Catatonia showed improvement, the researcher found.( ).

Seven in 10 take early pension payout ::: As governments and corporations around the world face pension shortfalls, a groundbreaking study in Croatia by a team of US researchers explores the likelihood and circumstances under which people will accept partial payouts.( ).

Bacteria the newest tool in detecting environmental damage ::: A method of using bacteria to help test for the presence of a wide array of pollutants has been developed by researchers. Thescientists say that their method may potentially be used for everything from well water testing to seaside construction purposes. ( ).

Survival from rare bone cancer remains low ::: Ten-year survival of a rare malignancy called mesenchymal chondrosarcoma has been reported to be as low as 20 percent. But a new study has found survival is not as dismal as prior reports. More than half (51 percent) of patients survived at least five years, and 43 percent survived at least 10 years.( ).

Inconsistent Medicaid expansion would widen disparities in screenings for women's cancers::: Researchers recently conducted a study that found low-income and uninsured women in states that are not expanding their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid coverage are less likely to receive breast and cervical cancer screenings compared to states that are implementing expansions. ( ).

Bragging: Researchers find self-promotion often backfires ::: Bragging to coworkers about a recent promotion, or posting a photo of your brand new car on Facebook, may seem like harmless ways to share good news. However, a new study shows that self-promotion or a 'humblebrag' often backfires.( ).

Aclidinium bromide/formoterol in COPD: Added benefit for certain patient groups ::: Patients with COPD grade III with no more than one flare-up per year and grade II patients benefit from the new aclidinium Bromide/formoterol drug combination, researchers note. ( ).

Political talk on Facebook mirrors political talk offline ::: Researchers found political discussions conducted on social networking sites like Facebook mirror traditional offline discussions and don't provide a window into previously untapped participants in the political process. The study also revealed two kinds of behaviors people exhibit in discussing politics on Facebook. ( ).

New research will help forecast bad ozone days over the Western US ::: A strong connection between high ozone days in the western US during late spring and La Nina, an ocean-atmosphere phenomena that affects global weather patterns, has been identified by researchers. Recognizing this link offers insight for public health and air quality managers.( ).

New study assesses risks of extreme weather to North Texas roads, runways ::: A new study explains how climate change and extreme weather will significantly disrupt infrastructure across the Dallas-Fort Worth region by the end of the 21st century. The assessment found the risks to transportation infrastructure from storms are more likely to happen during the spring season. Researchers found a higher likelihood of heat-related risks for infrastructure, particularly during the summer season. ( ).

The mighty seed: Best conservation practices consider both genetics, biology ::: Restoring diverse vegetation along the Atlantic seaboard after devastating hurricanes or replanting forests after destructive wildfires rests mightily upon one tiny but important ingredient: the seed. ( ).

Researchers unearthing slave artifacts in South Carolina ::: Researchers are unearthing artifacts under former slave quarters, filling in historical gaps of slaves, including black Indians. The Hume Plantation is an artifact rich site with pre-historic and historic-period deposits from Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. Early in the plantation's history Native Americans were used as slaves and later mixed with Africans, whose descendants are referred to as black Indians. ( ).

Frequent users of emergency care more than twice as likely to die or be admitted ::: Frequent users of emergency care are more than twice as likely as infrequent users to die, be admitted to hospital, or require other outpatient treatment, concludes an analysis of the available evidence. ( ).

Baiting the hook: The science of attracting and keeping online grocery shoppers ::: A study of the multichannel UK grocery shopping environment recently yielded insights that will be useful for retailers with an online channel or considering adding one to their customers' options. ( ).

Thinspiration' images of women on social media sites examined ::: Some of the most popular social media sites are filled with images of extremely thin women that might be harmful to those who view them — whether they are seeking them or not, according to research. The images were often cropped to remove heads or focus on just a few body parts.( ).

When do mothers need others? ::: New research examines how mothers underwent a remarkable transition from the past – when they had one dependent offspring at a time, ended support of their young at weaning and received no help from others – to the present, when mothers often have multiple kids who help rear other children. ( ).

Will Mexico's aging population see cancer care as a priority? ::: Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America — and its population is aging rapidly. Researchers offer new predictions and suggestions for lessening the impact of Mexico's cancer burden.( ).

Populated Puget Sound sees stark shifts in marine fish species ::: The most populated areas of Puget Sound have experienced striking shifts in marine species, with declines in herring and smelt that have long provided food for other marine life and big increases in the catch of jellyfish, which contribute far less to the food chain, according to new research that tracks species over the last 40 years.( ).

New care approach to colorectal operations speeds patients' recovery times ::: Patients undergoing colorectal operations who participated in an enhanced recovery program left the hospital sooner and had significantly lower hospital costs than patients who had the traditional approach to their care, according to a new study, which also found further postoperative improvements after adding an infection prevention protocol.( ).

Impact of post-treatment surveillance in head and neck squamous cell cancer ::: Compliance with post-treatment surveillance, income level and the travel distance for follow-up care had effects on survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer, according to a report. ( ).

I'll have what she's having: How peers influence the adoption of new sales channel ::: Marketing campaigns focused on social media and socioeconomic groupings are likely to give the greatest boost to disruptive new channels, but help propel new brick-and-mortar venues as well, a study concludes.( ).

Local media helps communities to cope after traumatic events ::: Local media's sensitive approach to communities trying to cope in the face of trauma helps local people adapt to the stressful events by strengthening community bonds. ( ).

Vulnerable grassland birds abandon mating sites near wind turbines ::: Shifting to renewable energy sources has been widely touted as one of the best ways to fight climate change, but even renewable energy can have a downside, as in the case of wind turbines' effects on bird populations. In a new paper, a group of researchers demonstrate the impact that one wind energy development in Kansas has had on Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) breeding in the area.( ).

Securing supply of sea scallops for today and tomorrow ::: Good management has brought the $559 million United States sea scallop fishery back from the brink of collapse over the past 20 years. However, its current fishery management plan does not account for longer-term environmental change like ocean warming and acidification that may affect the fishery in the future. A group of researchers hopes to change that. ( ).

Researchers reverse bacterial resistance to antibiotics in lab ::: The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing problem in the United States and the world. New findings by researchers in evolutionary biology and mathematics could help doctors better address the problem in a clinical setting.( ).

Plant toxin causes biliary atresia in animal model ::: A new study is a classic example of how seemingly unlikely collaborators can come together to make surprising discoveries. An international team of gastroenterologists, pediatricians, natural products chemists, and veterinarians, working with zebrafish models and mouse cell cultures have discovered that a chemical found in Australian plants provides insights into the cause of a rare and debilitating disorder affecting newborns called biliary atresia, is the most common indication for a liver transplant in children. ( ).

Genetically isolated sloth bears rely on habitat corridors to connect populations ::: Habitat connectivity and corridors may play an important role in maintaining gene flow between isolated sloth bear populations in central India.( ).

Fishermen, communities need more than healthy fish stocks ::: A new tool ranks the vitality of a fishery by looking at its economic and community benefits as well as its ecological health. Since 2010, researchers have visited and studied fisheries ranging from Alaska halibut and Oregon Dungeness crab to Norway cod, Louisiana shrimp, Nile perch in Uganda and blue swimming crabs in Indonesia to gather information and refine the tool.( ).

Explosive volcanoes fueled by water ::: Geologists have tapped water in surface rocks to show how magma forms deep underground and produces explosive volcanoes in the Cascade Range. ( ).

A better way to build DNA scaffolds: Long, custom-designed DNA strands ::: Imagine taking strands of DNA – the material in our cells that determines how we look and function – and using it to build tiny structures that can deliver drugs to targets within the body or take electronic miniaturization to a whole new level. While it may still sound like science fiction to most of us, researchers have been piecing together and experimenting with DNA structures for decades. And, in recent years, scientists have moved the use of human-made DNA structures closer to a variety of real-world applications. ( ).

Conservationists 'on the fence' about barriers to protect wildlife in drylands ::: To fence or not to fence? That is the question facing conservationists concerned with barriers that keep wildlife in and people out. Researchers say that new policies must be developed before fences are erected — particularly in dryland ecosystems where mobility is essential for both humans and wildlife. ( ).

Carrot or stick? Punishments may guide behavior more effectively than rewards ::: When it comes to rewards and punishments, which is more effective — the carrot or the stick? A simple experiment suggests that punishments are more likely to influence behavior than rewards. The results stem from a study involving 88 students at a university.( ).

Airflow model to reduce time on the tarmac ::: A mechanical engineering professor describes in a new article a new mathematical tool he developed to calculate the flow of turbulent air produced by a plane's wing tips when an airplane takes off. He says that "time spent twiddling your thumbs on the tarmac" could be significantly reduced, as a result.( ).

Survival rates in trauma patients after Massachusetts health insurance reform ::: A study of survival rates in trauma patients following health insurance reform in Massachusetts found a passing increase in adjusted mortality rates, an unexpected finding suggesting that simply providing insurance incentives and subsidies may not improve survival for trauma patients, according to a report. ( ).

Inkjet printing process for kesterite solar cells::: A research team has developed an inkjet printing technology to produce kesterite thin film absorbers. Based on the inkjet-printed absorbers, solar cells with total area conversion efficiency of up to 6.4 percent have been achieved. Although this is lower than the efficiency records for this material class, the inkjet printing minimizes waste and has huge advantages for industrial production.( ).

Going high-tech to study fragile cold-water reefs ::: Coral reefs are generally associated with warm, shallow and crystal-clear waters in the tropics. Other species of coral, however, flourish in the deep cold ocean where they also form large reefs. Now researchers have applied a technique to study these important and fragile cold water reefs without affecting them or altering their surrounding physical environment. ( ).

Foreclosures fueled racial segregation in U.S., study finds ::: Some 9 million American families lost their homes to foreclosure during the late 2000s housing bust, driving many to economic ruin and in search of new residences. Hardest hit were black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods, according to a new analysis of the crisis. ( ).

Thermometer-like device could help diagnose heart attacks ::: Diagnosing a heart attack can require multiple tests using expensive equipment. But not everyone has access to such techniques, especially in remote or low-income areas. Now scientists have developed a simple, thermometer-like device that could help doctors diagnose heart attacks with minimal materials and cost. ( ).

From the depths of a microscopic world, spontaneous cooperation ::: A clever combination of two different types of computer simulations enabled a group of researchers to uncover an unexpectedly cooperative group dynamic: the spontaneous emergence of resource sharing among individuals in a community. Who were the members of this friendly, digitally represented collective? Escherichia coli, rod-shaped bacteria found in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals. ( ).

Social network experiments create a tipping point to improve public health ::: Convincing a large group of people to change its behavior is no popularity contest, a new study shows. In a novel experiment, researchers found that certain public health interventions work best when key 'influencers' in a face-to-face social network are exposed to the program. What's surprising, they say, is that those key influencers are not the most socially connected people in the network. ( ).

Springing into action: New biosafety process introduced ::: While new and groundbreaking innovations in biotechnology are developed in laboratories, it is crucial that scientistsemploy the highest level of safety measures within the laboratory to prevent any unintentional effects on human health or environment. To that end, researchers are developing and making available to the public a proactive, biosafety process to review all proposed biotechnology research and manage potential risks preemptively.( ).

Scientists X-ray chocolate ::: An X-ray study may lead to higher quality chocolate. The study offers new insights into the formation of fat bloom, an unwelcome white layer that occasionally forms on chocolate.( ).

Blood markers could help predict outcome of infant heart surgery ::: New research suggests it may be possible to predict an infant's progress following surgery for congenital heart disease by analysing a number of important small molecules in the blood.( ).

Earthquakes: Supercycles in subduction zones::: When tectonic plates collide, they produce earthquakes like the recent one in Nepal. Researchers are providing new ways to explain how and why earthquake supercycles occur in zones where one plate moves under another, such as off the coast of Japan.( ).

Employers and workers can join forces to keep diabetes under control ::: People with diabetes who enroll in a health plan tailored to their medical condition are more likely to stick to their medication and actively take charge of their own health care, research into the effectiveness of the Diabetes Health Plan finds.( ).

New form of DNA modification may carry inheritable information ::: The surprising discovery and function of a new DNA modification in insects, worms, and algae has been described in a new article by an international team of researchers.( ).

Hispanics' health in the United States: Report::: The first national study on Hispanic health risks and leading causes of death in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that similar to non-Hispanic whites (whites), the two leading causes of death in Hispanics are heart disease and cancer. Fewer Hispanics than whites die from the 10 leading causes of death, but Hispanics had higher death rates than whites from diabetes and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.( ).

Ethanol refining may release more of some pollutants than previously thought ::: Ethanol fuel refineries could be releasing much larger amounts of some ozone-forming compounds into the atmosphere than current assessments suggest, a new study finds. Airborne measurements downwind from an ethanol fuel refinery in Decatur, Illinois, show that ethanol emissions are 30 times higher than government estimates. The measurements also show emissions of all volatile organic compounds, which include ethanol, were five times higher than government numbers, which estimate emissions based on manufacturing information.( ).

High fever: Is it measles or flu? ::: A pathologist and infectious disease expert offers symptoms parents should watch for if they suspect their child has the measles.( ).

Herd immunity' threatened in measles outbreak, pathologist says ::: Spending time with other people is a cure for loneliness. But being a member of a vaccinated community has an important added benefit: preventing the spread of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. The current concern over outbreaks of measles in the United States provides valuable lessons about how vaccinations are effective across a broad community.( ).

Thoughts drive dieting plans but feelings drive dieting behavior, study finds ::: Dieting is a process that involves a plan to change eating behavior and behaving according to that plan. But the factors that guide diet planning differ from those that guide actual diet behavior, according to the results of a new study.( ).

ASTRO issues guideline on definitive and adjuvant RT for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer ::: The American Society for Radiation Oncology is issuing a new guideline, 'Definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: An American Society for Radiation Oncology evidence-based clinical practice guideline.'( ).

Who benefits from a catheter — and who doesn't? New guide aims to protect patients ::: What's the only thing worse than having a urinary catheter when you're in the hospital? Having one and getting a urinary tract infection — or worse — as a result. Now, a new detailed guide gives doctors and nurses information to help decide which hospital patients may benefit from a urinary catheter — and which ones don't. ( ).

Redesigned systems may increase access to MRI for patients with implanted medical devices ::: New technology may extend the benefits of magnetic resonance imaging to many patients whose access to MRI is currently limited. A redesign of the wire at the core of the leads that carry signals between implanted medical devices and their target structures significantly reduces the generation of heat that occurs when standard wires are exposed to the radiofrequency (RF) energy used in MRI.( ).

Companies' bottom lines benefit when former politicians join leadership teams ::: Companies can experience a significant improvement to their bottom lines when a former politician takes a leadership role, but company leaders who move into the political area do not provide the same benefits, a new study concludes.( ).

Improving transistors that drive flexible electronics ::: A revolution is coming in flexible electronic technologies as cheaper, more flexible, organic transistors replace expensive, rigid, silicone-based semiconductors, but not enough is known about how bending thin-film electronic devices affects performance. A new study provides answers. ( ).

Simulating seasons: Researchers use supercomputing to assess impact of climate change on Malawi's growing season ::: Malawi, a small landlocked country in southeast Africa, is home to 13 million people and is one of the least-developed countries in the world. Its security is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture. Changes in rainfall patterns associated with climate change can be devastating, leading to food crises, famines, and loss of life. Two researchers are dedicated to understanding how climate change and variability will impact Malawi.( ).

Traumatic brain injury linked to increased road rage ::: Ontario adult drivers who say they have experienced at least one traumatic brain injury in their lifetime also report significantly higher incidents of serious road-related driving aggression, said a new study. Serious driver aggression includes: making threats to hurt a fellow driver, passenger or vehicle. These individuals also reported significantly higher odds of being involved in a motor vehicle collision that resulted in hurting themselves, their passenger or their vehicle.( ).

Interferon-free therapy clears hepatitis C in 93 percent of patients in trial ::: A 12-week dose of an investigational three-drug hepatitis C combination cured the virus in 93 percent of patients with liver cirrhosis who hadn't previously been treated, according to a study. For most of the past 20 years, therapies for hepatitis C relied on interferon drugs, which require regular injections for as long as one year and trigger miserable, flu-like side effects that prompt many patients to quit the regimen. Some patients aren't eligible for this treatment if they have anemia, low platelets or other conditions. ( ).

Model approach for sustainable phosphorus recovery from wastewater ::: A new study has examined methods for recovering phosphorus from wastewater using mathematical modeling. The study showed that a typical wastewater treatment plant could reclaim approximately 490 tons of phosphorus in the form of struvite each year. ( ).

How noise changes the way the brain gets information ::: In a study on mice, cells that relay information from the ear to the brain changed their behavior and structure in response to the noise level in the environment. Researchers think the adaptations could aid hearing in different conditions.( ).

Connecting uninsured patients to primary care could reduce emergency department use ::: An intervention to connect low-income uninsured and Medicaid patients to a reliable source of primary health care shows promise for reducing avoidable use of hospital emergency departments in Maryland.( ).

Strategy found for safely prescribing antidepressants to children and adolescents ::: Two new strategies to treat depression in young people have been developed for the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class of medications. These strategies incorporate a new understanding of how to mitigate the risk of suicide while on SSRI treatment.( ).

One in five people will develop heart failure ::: One person in five is expected to develop heart failure in developed countries, a disease with no cure but which is largely preventable.( ).

New chip architecture may provide foundation for quantum computer ::: Quantum computers are in theory capable of simulating the interactions of molecules at a level of detail far beyond the capabilities of even the largest supercomputers today. Such simulations could revolutionize chemistry, biology and materialscience, but the development of quantum computers has been limited by the ability to increase the number of quantum bits, or qubits, that encode, store and access large amounts of data. ( ).

Chest strap heart rate monitor ::: Scientists have developed a novel chest strap device for the long-term monitoring of patients with heart and circulatory problems. What is special about the new system is that it records an electrocardiogram (ECG) of the wearer. It is also self-moistening, which is essential for reliable signal monitoring. ( ).

How do neural cells respond to ischemia? ::: The World Health Organization reports cardiovascular diseases to be the leading cause of morbility globally as the majority of deaths are caused by strokes and ischemic heart disease. Researchers have now specified mechanisms related to the development of ischemic disease. ( ).

Treating gum disease reduces prostate symptoms, researchers find ::: Treating gum disease reduced symptoms of prostate inflammation, called prostatitis, report researchers. Previous studies have found a link between gum disease and prostatitis, a disease that inflames the gland that produces semen. Inflammation can make urination difficult.( ).

America's best teachers get creative ::: America's best teachers rap their algebra lessons, use music to teach Kafka and find other ways to use their own creative interests to teach their students, finds a new study. Examining the classroom practices of National Teacher of the Year winners and finalists, the study suggests successful educators aren't afraid to push the boundaries by incorporating real world, cross-disciplinary themes into their lessons. ( ).

Nonstop shopping: Impact of mobile technology on purchasing patterns ::: Customers who adopted mobile technology for their grocery shopping shopped more often and placed larger orders, research shows. The data was collected between 2011 and 2013 from an Internet-only retail grocer that operates mainly in the northeast US. Although 70 percent of transactions with the grocer were still being conducted via personal computer during this period, the researchers were able to identify key patterns among customers who were increasingly using mobile technology.( ).

Scientists look through the mirror to reveal secrets of a new drug ::: Research results can help develop anti-inflammatory drugs, scientists say. Results from recent study revealed a nucleic acid molecule that has the perfectly reversed geometry as compared to a naturally occurring RNA/DNA molecule. However, this unusual molecule still interacts strongly with the normal C5a protein built with naturally occurring amino acids, thereby illustrating beautifully how the two sides of the mirror can be reunited and leaving us to wonder about the possibility of a world where both sides of the mirror would have coexisted in harmony.( ).

What happens when populations hit the borders of expansion? ::: Scientists are researching how population size and genetic drift affect the limits to a species' range. In a new article, they explain why sharp range margins arise in natural populations.( ).

Slowdown after Ice Age sounds a warning for Great Barrier Reef's future ::: Environmental factors similar to those affecting the present day Great Barrier Reef have been linked to a major slowdown in its growth 8,000 years ago, research shows. ( ).

Shedding light on rods: Novel technique to investigate the activity of these retinal cells ::: By using 'unusual' optic fibres in a novel fashion, an international team of researchers scrutinized the response to light of rods, the light-sensitive cells of the retina, and demonstrated that the intensity of response varies according to the region of the cell hit by the light. ( ).

Seafloor sensors record possible eruption of underwater volcano ::: If a volcano erupts at the bottom of the sea, does anybody see it? If that volcano is Axial Seamount, about 300 miles offshore and 1 mile deep, the answer is now: yes. ( ).

Ocean fronts improve climate and fishery production, study finds ::: Ocean fronts — separate regions of warm and cool water as well as salt and fresh water — act to increase production in the ocean, research has found. This research showed how fronts can be incorporated into current climate and fisheries models to account for small-scale interactions in fishery production and cycling of elements such as carbon and nitrogen in the ocean.( ).

Lousy sockeye are lousy competitors ::: A key discovery has been made regarding Fraser River sockeye's vulnerability to sea lice. Their recently published research indicates that juvenile Fraser River sockeye salmon that are highly infected with sea lice are 20 percent less successful at consuming food than their lightly infected counterparts. ( ).

Good things in store for retailers ::: Adding brick-and-mortar stores to online and catalog retailing increases sales overall, research shows. Online and catalog retailers pondering whether to add physical stores to their customers' buying options can look to recent research for valuable insights on the interplay among the various channels. ( ).

Lava Lake Loki on Jupiter's moon Io, up close::: Io, the innermost of the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610 and only slightly bigger than our own moon, is the most geologically active body in our solar system. Hundreds of volcanic areas dot its surface, which is mostly covered with sulfur and sulfur dioxide. The largest of these volcanic features, named Loki after the Norse god often associated with fire and chaos, is a volcanic depression called patera in which the denser lava crust solidifying on top of a lava lake episodically sinks in the lake, yielding a raise in the thermal emission that has been regularly observed from Earth. Loki, only 124 miles in diameter and at least 373 million miles from Earth, was, up until recently, too small to be looked at in detail from any ground-based optical/infrared telescope. ( ).

School reform in post-Katrina New Orleans harmful to black community, scholars say ::: By most media accounts, education reform in post-Katrina New Orleans is a success. Test scores and graduation rates are up, and students once trapped in failing schools have their choice of charter schools throughout the city. But that's only what education reform looks like from the perspective of New Orleans' white minority — the policymakers, school administrators and venture philanthropists orchestrating and profiting from these changes, say three education scholars.( ).

Housing market cycles have become longer ::: A statistical analysis of data from 20 industrial countries covering the period 1970 to 2012 suggests housing market pricing cycles — normal, boom and bust phases — have become longer over the last four decades.( ).

Frailty among older heart patients helps predict severe outcomes ::: Frailty among older people with cardiovascular disease appears to be more predictive than age for gauging their risk of heart attack, stroke and death, according to an international study. The researchers noted that frailty is easily diagnosed and should be used in addition to the current scoring system that stratifies patients with acute coronary syndrome.( ).

US clinics avoiding government oversight of 'stem cell' treatments ::: Clinics across the United States are advertising stem cell treatments that attempt to take advantage of what they perceive as exceptions in FDA regulations, according to bioethicist.( ).

Identifying speech, hearing problems early may prevent future losses ::: Experts share tips and tools that identify and prevent speech, voice, and hearing impairments. Such impairments affect 43 million Americans, they say, noting how important it is to diagnose these early. ( ).

The language of invention: Most innovations are rephrasings of past inventions ::: Most new patents are combinations of existing ideas and pretty much always have been, even as the stream of fundamentally new core technologies has slowed, according to a new study.( ).

NASA Completes MESSENGER Mission with Expected Impact on Mercury's Surface ::: A NASA planetary exploration mission came to a planned, but nonetheless dramatic, end April 30 when it slammed into Mercury's surface at about 8,750 mph and created a new crater on the planet's surface. ( ).

Beyond chicken fingers and fries: New evidence in favor of healthier kids' menus ::: New research is a first of its kind to look at ordering patterns and sales data following healthy menu changes. Researchers examined outcomes before and after the Silver Diner, a full-service family restaurant chain, made changes to its children's menu in order to make healthier items easier to choose. ( ).

Pulsar with widest orbit ever detected ::: A team of highly determined high school students discovered a never-before-seen pulsar. Further observations by astronomers using the GBT revealed that this pulsar has the widest orbit of any around a neutron star and is part of only a handful of double neutron star systems.( ).

Highly efficient CRISPR knock-in in mouse ::: The CRISPR/Cas system, which is based on chemically synthesized small RNAs and commercially available Cas9 enzyme, has enabled long gene-cassette knock-in in mice with highest efficiency ever reported, scientists report. ( ).

Mechanisms for continually producing sperm::: Continually producing sperm over a long time is important to procreate the next generation. Researchers have revealed that there are differences in reactivity to retinoic acid in spermatogonial stem cells, and these differences are a key factor to the persistence of sperm production with inexhaustible stem cells. ( ).

Guidance improves food safety practices at school, community gardens ::: School and community gardens have become increasingly popular in recent years, but the people managing and working in these gardens are often unfamiliar with food safety practices that reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Now researchers have developed guidelines that address how to limit risk in these gardens — and a pilot study shows that the guidelines make a difference. ( ).

Elusive new bird discovered in China ::: An international team of scientists has discovered a new bird in China. The new bird, the Sichuan bush warbler, resides in five mountainous provinces in central China. The bird has shunned the limelight by hiding in grassy, scrubby vegetation over the years. However, its distinctive song eventually gave it away, said an integrative biologist on the team.( ).

New exoplanet too big for its star challenges ideas about how planets form ::: The discovery of a strange exoplanet orbiting very close to a small cool star 500 light years away is challenging ideas about how planets form.( ).

GIS study reveals preferred habitat of the Asian elephant ::: New results show that Asian elephants preferred secondary forests, presumably because of the abundance of ground grass to eat. The study also found that they spend 75% of their time within 1.5 km of their water source. ( ).

Heritage destruction in conflict zones provides archaeological opportunities ::: An international archaeological team is investigating an historic site devastated by conflict in Lebanon. They have demonstrated it is possible to obtain original and important information from heritage sites that have been devastated by conflict. ( ).

Surgery for terminal cancer patients still common ::: The number of surgeries performed on terminally ill cancer patients has not dropped in recent years, despite more attention to the importance of less invasive care for these patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. ( ).

Online voting a step closer thanks to breakthrough in security technology ::: A technique to allow people to cast their election vote online — even if their home computers are suspected of being infected with viruses — has been developed by researchers. Taking inspiration from the security devices issued by some banks, the system allows people to vote by employing independent hardware devices in conjunction with their PCs.( ).

Substantial benefits for health, environment through realistic changes to UK diets ::: Making a series of relatively minor and realistic changes to UK diets would not only reduce UK diet-related greenhouse gas emissions by nearly a fifth, but could also extend average life expectancy by eight months, according to new research. ( ).

England set for 'substantial increase' in record-breaking warm years ::: The likelihood of record-breaking warm years in England is set to substantially increase as a result of the human influence on the climate, new research suggests. ( ).

Short-term debt, depressive symptoms may go hand-in-hand ::: Having short-term household debt — credit cards and overdue bills — increases depressive symptoms, research shows. The association is particularly strong among unmarried people, people reaching retirement age and those who are less well educated, according to a new study.( ).

Study questions quality of U.S. health data ::: Most U.S. clinical registries that collect data on patient outcomes are substandard and lack critical features necessary to render the information they collect useful for patients, physicians and policy makers, new research suggests. ( ).

Dwindling productivity in Congress linked to vanishing cooperation ::: As the number of bills passed by Congress declines, fewer and fewer Congressional representatives are voting across party lines, leaving only a few key representatives as collaborative voters, according to researchers. ( ).

California's 4.8 million low-wage workers now earn less than in 1979 ::: Over the past 35 years, California's high-wage workers have seen steady increases in their paychecks. But low-wage workers, 4.8 million strong and about one-third of the state's workforce, earned less in inflation-adjusted dollars in 2014 than they did in 1979, according to an analysis.( ).

Metal contamination makes gasoline production inefficient ::: Scientists have identified key mechanisms of the aging process of catalyst particles that are used to refine crude oil into gasoline. This advance could lead to more efficient gasoline production.( ).

How some beetles produce a scalding defensive spray ::: Bombardier beetles, which exist on every continent except Antarctica, have a pretty easy life. Virtually no other animals prey on them, because of one particularly effective defense mechanism: When disturbed or attacked, the beetles produce an internal chemical explosion in their abdomen and then expel a jet of boiling, irritating liquid toward their attackers. ( ).

Dam removal study reveals river resiliency ::: More than 1,000 dams have been removed across the United States because of safety concerns, sediment buildup, inefficiency or having otherwise outlived usefulness. A paper finds that rivers are resilient and respond relatively quickly after a dam is removed.( ).

Physicists find long sought-after Efimov state in helium trimer ::: A quantum state predicted by the Russian theoretician Vitaly Efimov 40 years ago has been discovered by physicists in a molecule consisting of three helium atoms. The molecule is of enormous spatial extent and exists mainly in the classically forbidden tunneling region, explain the researchers.( ).

Percentage of Texans without health insurance drops dramatically ::: The percentage of Texans without health insurance dropped 31 percent since enrollment began in the Affordable Care Act's Health Insurance Marketplace, according to a new report. Despite this improvement, Texas remains the state with the highest percentage of people without health insurance, and for the first time, Texas now has the largest number of uninsured residents in the country. ( ).

Busy Americans can reap health benefits by balancing protein intake throughout the day ::: Researchers conducted a review of the current scientific literature on protein consumption and found that a moderate increase in protein consumption at each meal, balanced throughout the day, can lead to significant improvements. ( ).

Wild bearded capuchin monkeys really know how to crack a nut ::: When it comes to cracking nuts, wild bearded capuchin monkeys are more skilled than anyone had given them credit for, according to researchers.( ).

Observing the solar eclipse over the Arctic ::: Scientists braved Arctic weather to successfully observe the total solar eclipse of March 20 from Longyearbyen on the island of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago east of northern Greenland. ( ).

Generic transplant drugs as good as brand name, experts say ::: Scientists have found that generic formulations of tacrolimus, a drug used post-transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection, are just as good as the name-brand version. ( ).

Human-inspired robot takes a brisk walk in the grass ::: In a rolling, outdoor field, full of lumps, bumps and uneven terrain, researchers have successfully field-tested for the first time the locomotion abilities of a two-legged robot with technology that they believe heralds the running robots of the future.( ).

Tough laws to stop the trade of endangered wildlife 'not enough' ::: Western conservation groups are seeking stricter law enforcement to tackle a trade in endangered wildlife, but a researcher warns that this is not a 'silver bullet' solution. He highlights the case of the Bali starling, where bringing in tougher laws back-fired — only serving to make the bird more popular among the elite. He highlights how sometimes local people who know the realities on the ground get better results.( ).

Marshes, reefs, beaches can enhance coastal resilience ::: The resilience of U.S. coastal communities to storms, flooding, erosion and other threats can be strengthened when they are protected by natural infrastructure such as marshes, reefs, and beaches, or with hybrid approaches, such as a "living shoreline" — a combination of natural habitat and built infrastructure, according to a new study.( ).

Black holes gorging at excessive rates ::: A group of unusual giant black holes may be consuming excessive amounts of matter, according to a new study. This finding may help astronomers understand how the largest black holes were able to grow so rapidly in the early Universe. ( ).

Young people think friends are more at risk of cyberbullying ::: Young people are aware of the risks of cyberbullying but perceive others as being more at risk than themselves. Young women are more vulnerable to this perception than young men. ( ).

New test predicts sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients ::: A new test has been developed to predict sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients in whom such forecasts were previously impossible. The test uses a combination of nuclear medicine, C-reactive protein and electrocardiogram (ECG). Researchers found that patients with 2 or 3 abnormal measures were at 145 times increased cardiac risk. ( ).

Hundredeårige dør ikke af kræft :::(

Invasive arter – bl.a. pindsvin, rotter, kaniner og mink (Skotske øer) ::: (

Biers hjerne har et landkort :::(

Biers hjerne har et landkort :::(

Nedgangen i antallet af bier. :::(

Farvil til vilde honningbier :::(

Skotlands humlebier i kraftig tilbagegang :::(

Byer er gode steder for bier:::(

Bier der ikke kan stikke. :::(

Røverbier::: (

Isla of Man erklæret fri for Varroa-mider som angriber honningbier::: (

Neonicotinoider påvirker biers hjerne og giver dem nikotintrang::: (

410 mill år gammel edderkop :::(

Grand Canyons beefaloer (bison x kvæg hybrider) ::: (

Hjerne for social position:::(

Guenon-abers ansigter udviklet for at hindre hybridkrydsninger::: (

Antropocæn – menneskets tidsalder:::(

Lidar-teknologi finder byen Angkor i Cambodias jungle::: (

For at finde ud af, hvordan det menneskelige sind fungerer, har forskere på Institut for Neuroimaging og Informatik på University of Southern California lavet en database med data om 30.000 detaljerede 3D-hjernescanninger. Disse data er så omfattende, at det ville svare til datamængden på 10.000 bærbare computere. (ref.)
Dette er dog intet mod de mængder af data, som kræves til astronomiske studier. The Square Kilometre Array, der er et radioteleskop, der bygges i Afrika og Australien, vil indsamle så mange data på et år, at det ville fylde 300 millioner millioner bærbare computere. Det er 150 gange mere end den nuværende samlede årlige globale internettrafik. (ref.)
Detaljerede scanninger af nervecellebanerne i den menneskelige hjerne fra blot ét forskerprojekt i Californien har brug for at opbevare computerdata, der svarer til 10.000 bærbare computere. (ref.)
Fremkomsten af Big Data kan sammenlignes med udviklingen af mikroskopet. Med et ny værktøj kan forskere studere processer i naturen, som man ikke kunne tidligere. (ref.)

Ifølge Nissan er der i Storbritannien blevet solgt mere end 2000 af deres Leaf elbiler i de første seks måneder af 2014. (ref.)
Ecotricity har installeret 170 superhurtige opladningsstationer ved britiske motorveje.(ref.)
De giver mulighed for at oplade bilens batteri 80% på 20-30 minutter. (ref.)
Superhurtige opladere giver 254 km opladning på 30 minutter, hvilket passer nogenlunde med en kaffepause. (ref.)
Blot 4.000 elbiler brugte opladningssystemet mellem oktober og december 2013. I de tre måneder frem til udgangen af ??juni 2015 var tallet imidlertid vokset til 15.000. (ref.)
Det er en imponerende stigning. (ref.)
I løbet af bare 12 måneder har man gået fra, at det tog 8 timer at oplade en bil, til at det kun tager 20 minutter. (ref.)
Tesla har planer om i 2020 at kunne fremstille egne batterier i en fabrik drevet af sol og vind.(ref.)
"> According to the Bumblebee Conservation Trust, there are about 250 species of bee in the UK, and the survey hopes to build up a more detailed picture of the range and behaviour of certain species. (ref.)
Ved udgangen af ??2015 vil der i Storbritannien og Irland være talrige superhurtige opladningsstationerr i landet, herunder også i London. (ref.)
"> In a trial of 53 patients, survival was 85% after one year, and 79% after two years. (ref.)
"> Twenty days later, there appeared to be no viable cancer cells left in treated samples. (ref.)
Norge har taget elbilen til sig som intet andet land. (ref.)
Med en befolkning på lidt over fem millioner har nordmændene tre gange så mange elbiler på vejene som Storbritannien. I virkeligheden har de per capita flere elbiler end noget andet land i verden. (ref.)
I en måned i foråret 2014 var Nissan Leaf-elbilen Norges mest sælgende bil. (ref.)
Tyskland er på trods af landets grønne initiativer, når det drejer sig om vind og sol, meget bagefter på elbil-området. (ref.)
I 2009 var det regeringens mål, at der skulle være en million elbiler på vejene i Tyskland i 2020. (ref.)
Men en kombination af manglende innovation hos tyske producenter og manglende incitament fra regeringen fik initiativet til at gå i stå, og målet kan nu på ingen måde nås. (ref.)

Den iriserende effekt i vingerne af den blå morpho-sommerfugl har en strukturel oprindelse, og er ikke baseret på pigmenter i vingerne. (ref.)
En udstilling med titlen "den usynlige Have" (Invisible Garden) på Royal Horticultural Society's Hampton Court Flower Show er fængslende for de besøgende med opstillede kæmpeplancher af den mikroskopiske verden i haver. (ref.)
Lepidoptera er det latinske navn for sommerfugle-gruppen, og navnet betyder "skællet vinge". (ref.)
Men når man med et elektronmikroskop zoomer ind på nanostrukturen af vingeskællene afsløres en ny verden. (ref.)
På nanoskala, set via et elektronmikroskop, viser plancherne strukturer, der kun kan beskrives som juletræer, som står op fra overfladen af ??vingeskællene i lange linjer.(ref.)
De er lavet af chitin, og hvert juletræ er blot en mikrometer høj, dvs. en tusindedel af en millimeter. (ref.)
Den iriserende effekt, der skifter alt efter synsvinklen, frembringes af lys, der reflektere af de forskellige strukturer i juletræern, – lidt ligesom effekten af ??lys, der rammer en sæbeboble. (ref.)
Dette betegnes strukturelle farver, og de produceres altså ikke af farvepigmenter. (ref.)
Professor Peter Vukusic fra Exeter University har været på forkant med disse opdagelser i 15 år, og var en af de første, der studerede dette ud fra en fysikers perspektiv. (ref.)
Han sendte laserlys gennem en enkelt af disse vingeskæl og var dermed den første, der så de fascinerende diffraktionsmønstre blive dannet. Ingen havde gjort det tidligere, og det gav anledning til en dybere forståelse af, hvordan systemet fungerer. (ref.)
Tilsvarende strukturelle farvedannelser kan også ses hos møl, biller og visse plantefrø.(ref.)
Viden om den struktur, der giver billen Cyphochilus sin ekstraordinære hvidhed, har bidraget til udvikling af ??en ny type superhvidt papir.. (ref.)
Den flimrende blågrønne overflade på frøene af planten Margaritaria nobilis (Phyllantaceae-familien) fra Centralamerika har inspireret forskere til at designe en fiber, der skifter farve, når den udstrækkes. Når udstrækningsspændingen påføres tråden, skifter den fra rød til grøn og derefter gul farve. Farven bestemmes af tykkelsen af ??nanostrukturerne. (ref.)
Dette har stort potentiale til brug i mikro-kirurgi. En kirurg, der opererer ved hjælp af fjernbetjeningsudstyr, ville derved kunne vide nøjagtigt, hvor meget den kirurgiske tråd strammes ved at iagttage farveændringen.(ref.)
Luftrummene mellem juletræ-strukturerne kan bruges til at fange dampformige stoffer, som derved vil få overfladens optiske egenskaber til at ændres. Måske kan dette bruges til udvikling af et materiale, som kan påvise dampe af eksplosive sprængstoffer, hvilket det amerikanske militær ville være meget interesseret i. (ref.)

Baseret på blæksprutters camouflage-evner har ingeniører i USA bygget et bøjeligt materiale, der skifter farve, så det kan matche omgivelsernes farve. Det kan også skifte farve afhængig af temperaturen. (ref.)
"> The research on Wolbachia began at the University of Monash in Australia in 2008. The researchers allowed the mosquitoes to feed on their own arms for five years because of concerns at the time Wolbachia could infect humans and domestic animals. (ref.)
Forskerne har kopieret dette tre-lagede design således, at toplaget indeholder farverne, det midterste lag frembringer farveændringer, og det nedre lag registrerer det baggrundsmønster, der skal kopieres. (ref.)
Hver komponent i trelags-arket udfører sin funktion på en helt anderledes måde end de tre lag i en blækspruttes hud. (ref.)
Det nederste lag i det kunstige system indeholder et gitter af fotosensorer, der detekterer ændringer i lyset og overfører dette mønster til "aktuatorer" i de ovenstående lag.(ref.)
Disse aktuatorer træder i stedet for muskler i blækspruttens hud, som kontrollerer de farveskiftende organer i overfladelaget. (ref.)
Når farven af baggrunden ændres, kan cellerne skifte farve inden for et eller to sekunder. (ref.)
Det øverste lag i den kunstige version bruger et temperaturfølsomt pigment, der går fra sort til transparent ved præcis 47 grader Celsius. (ref.)
Dette er det første fuldt, fungerende system af denne slags – men det ligner blot et tyndt stykke papir. (ref.)
Forskernes mål er ikke at udvikle et tapet, der skifter farve, men det kunne også blive et af resultaterne. (ref.)

Den næste robotmission til Mars, den planlagte Mars InSight mission i 2016, vil medbringe en britisk bygget enhed på omkring en centimeter.(ref.)
Det er et mikro-seismometer, der er bygget af Imperial College London. (ref.)
Efter ankomsten til Mars vil to af disse seismometre måle henholdsvis vandrette og lodrette bevægelser til påvisning af "marsskælv" – dvs. jordskælv på den røde planet. (ref.)
Man håber, at disse bevægelser vil give ny viden om planetens indre funktioner og hvordan Mars blev dannet og udviklede sig. (ref.)
Den franske rumorganisation vil også bidrage med et seismometer, og en tysk produceret varmesonde, som vil blive hamret ned i 5 meters dybde i Mars-overfladen, og et magnetometer vil påvise magnetiske udsving i planetens øvre atmosfære. (ref.)
En enhed, der er bygget af NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, vil måle planetens rotation. Man antager, at der ikke er pladeteknonik på Mars, bl.a. fordi det formentlig blev afkølet for hurtigt til, at det kunne udvikles. En anden forskel fra Jorden er, at Mars nu ikke har Jordens beskyttende magnetfelt. (ref.)
Medens den tidligere Phoenix-mission til Mars landene nær planetens nordlige iskappe, vil InSight lande nær ækvator. (ref.)

Den måde gekkoer kan kravle op ad en glasvæg kan inspireret til udvikling af et materiale, hvormed en 70 kg tung mand kan klatre 3-4 meter op ad en glasvæg hundredvis af gange uden at fejle. Det minder om Spider-Man. Manden havde på hver hånd en silicone-pude, der er ca. 35-40 cm bred, og som hæfter til underlaget fordi de er opbygget af talrige små kegleformede hår, som udnytter de såkaldte van der Waals kræfter. (ref.)
"> Our analysis shows that modern humans had already interbred with Neanderthals then and we can determine when that first happened much more precisely than we could before.(ref.)

"> Researchers in Vienna found that when less food was available, garden dormice used a short sleep-like state called torpor to save energy. (ref.)
Forskere har sekventeret genomet af blinde muldvarperotter. (ref.)
Dyret er bemærkelsesværdig modstandsdygtig over for kræft, ligesom sin fjerne fætter den nøgne muldvarperotte. (ref.)
"> Nodules (image) (ref.)
De opdagede også, hvordan dens særlige kræft-bekæmpende mekanisme kan have udviklet sig. (ref.)
En af undersøgelsens hovedforfattere, Prof Eviatar Nevo fra Haifa Universitet i Israel, har studeret blinde muldvarperotter i mere end 50 år. I alle den tid er en spontan tumor aldrig blevet opdaget. Ved udsættelse for kræftfremkaldende stoffer viser disse dyr også forbavsende modstandsdygtighed mod at udvikle kræft. (ref.)
De fleste dyr er afhængige at celler opdager, at de har fået kræft og lukker sig selv ned (ved programmeret celledød, også kaldet "apoptose"), men den blinde muldvarperottes immunsystem angriber tumorer og årsager "nekrose" i stedet. Gener, der er involveret i dette immunforsvar, er blevet begunstiget under evolutionen, og nogle gener er blevet udvidet eller duplikeret. (ref.)
Alt dette kan være sket, fordi en af ??de vigtigste formidlere af det normale celle-nedlukningsforsvar, et protein kaldet p53, er muteret i muldvarperotterne som en del af deres tilpasning til lav iltkoncentration. (ref.)
Muldvarperotte tilbringer hele sin liv under jorden, hvor der er lille iltkoncentraion. I andre dyr vil dette få p53 til at blive for aktiv. (ref.)
Andre arter ville, når der er lav iltkoncentration, få deres p53 til at overreagere så cellerne ville dø af apoptose, men det sker ikke hos den blinde muldvarperotte, fordi det ville være en katastrofe for dyret. (ref.)
Så muldvarperotter har udviklet en unik afvejning, nemlig svækkelse af p53-aktiviteten og styrkelse af immunsystemets nekroseforsvar, som "kræften ikke ved hvordan den skal håndtere". (ref.)
Genom-studiet er gennemført af et stort team af forskere, fra bl.a. Storbritannien, Kina, Israel, USA og Danmark. Kendskab til dyrets hele genom vil betyde, at dyret bedre kan bruges som model til kræftstudier og tilpasning til lav iltkoncentration mv. (ref.)
Den blinde muldvarperotte (den genom-sekventerede art er Spalax galili) er kun fjernt beslægtet med det nøgne muldvarperotte (Heterocephalus glaber), der også lever underjordisk og også har bemærkelsesværdig resistens mod kræft. (ref.)
Deres evolutionære historie afveg fra hinanden for mere end 70 millioner år siden, og de to dyrelinier blev helt separat tilpasset til livet under jorden. (ref.)
Faktisk er den pelsbærende-men-blinde Spalax en tættere fætter til den fælles slægtning husmusen end til Heterocephalus, der ligner en sabeltandet pølse. (ref.)

En blæksprutte-mor nægtede at spise i 53 måneder medens den vogtede over sine æg.(ref.)
I fire år og fem måneder klyngede hun sig til klippen, hvor hun bevogtet sine æg. (ref.)
Biologer observerede hendes opførsel fra en robot-ubåd. (ref.)
Dette er den længste rugetid, som nogensinde er blevet set i dyreriget. Dyret lever i dybhavet, og embryoner tager lang tid om at udvikle sig i kulden. (ref.)
Opdagelsen blev gjort i Monterey Canyon 1,4 km under Stillehavet, ud for Californiens kyst.(ref.)
"> The animals in the ocean have been getting bigger, on average, since the Cambrian period – and not by chance. (ref.)
Ingen havde tidligere haft held til at se begyndelsen på ? ?denne blækspruttearts rugeperiode. (ref.)
I de næste fire og et halvt år foretog marinbiologerne 18 besøg til blæksprutte med en fjernbetjent robotubåd med kameraer, robotarme og laserlys til at lave fysiske målinger. (ref.)
Blæksprutten døde formentlig kort efter at have afsluttet sin vagt. Rugeperioden optager typisk den sidste fjerdedel af en hunblækspruttes liv.(ref.)
Hun spiste sandsynligvis ikke noget i de 53 måneder. (ref.)
De fleste blæksprutter spiser ikke i rugeperioden, og under de 18 besøg var blæksprutten altid på plads ved sine æg, hvor den sørgede for at sende frisk vand hen over æggene. (ref.)
Den eneste gang kameraerne så denne særlige hengivne mor vise nogen opmærksomhed på de krabber eller rejer, der forvildede sig i nærheden af hende – og normalt ville have været et udsøgt måltid for en blæksprutte – var, da hun gennede dem væk fra hendes 150 dyrebare æg.(ref.)
Selv da biologerne med robottens arme tilbød hende en snack ignorerede hun dette tilbud.(ref.)
Det kan dog ikke udelukkes, at blæksprutten kan have fået næring fra ikke-lagte eller eller fra sjældne småmåltider. (ref.)
Det er meget, meget koldt vand, omkring 3 grader Celsius, og da de er ikke bevæger sig ret meget er deres stofskifte temmelig lavt. (ref.)
Det er formentlig den iskolde temperatur på disse dybder, der styrer den ekstraordinært lange rugeperiode. (ref.)
Man kender til et tilfælde, hvor en kæmpereje (giant red shrimp) beskyttede sine æg i 20 måneder. (ref.)

"> The challenge is for scientists to find new ways to manage this data and new ways to analyse it. Just collecting data does not solve any problems by itself. (ref.)
Guy Levy, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (ref.)
"> The government is rapidly rethinking the policy that has cost them a slightly shocking 500 million euros. (ref.)
Så octopus kun at beslutte, hvilken arm der skal bruges til at skubbe – det behøver ikke at afgøre, hvilken retning denne arm vil skubbe, forklarede Dr. Levy. (ref.)
Og fordi de væsner er i stand til at skubbe ud nogen af ??deres otte ben, de er i stand til at kravle i alle retninger – uanset hvilken vej deres krop står overfor. Og entydigt, er der ingen rytme eller mønster til deres bølgende benbevægelser (ref.)

"Tyndere end menneskehår ' Den menneskelige krop har naturlige koagulation celler såsom blodplader, som tilstoppe sammen for at danne propper i beskadigede fartøjer, der stammer blodgennemstrømningen. Dette system fungerer godt for sår og skrammer, men kan blive overvældet under massive traumer. Forskere ved Case Western Reserve University, Wayne State University og Virginia Tech i USA har syntetiseret de super-koagulation kugler – kaldet hæmostatiske nanopartikler. De små sfæriske partikler – nogle 200 gange tyndere end et menneskehår – har fangarm-lignende arme lavet af protein kæder. Disse arme danner forbindelser med naturlige koagulation celler til stede i blod, sammenklumpning dem sammen. Forskning offentliggjort i Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, forskerne fundet indsprøjte disse partikler ind i blodbanen af ??sårede mus bidraget til at forbedre overlevelsesprocenten fra 60% til 90%. De super-koagulation bolde kan vare op til to uger som et tørt pulver, og kan gøres til en løsning hurtigt ved blot at tilføje et salt eller sukker vand blanding. I øjeblikket mest blodprodukter, der anvendes til behandling af svær blødning skal være nedkølet og har en holdbarhed på et par dage. Arrangørerne af Storbritanniens første landsdækkende bi count håber en ny smartphone app vil skabe en buzz blandt landets borger forskere. De håber tusindvis af mennesker vil logge deres observationer for at give forskerne et afgørende indblik i sundheden for bibestande. Den app – udviklet af velgørenhed Buglife, Friends of the Earth og forhandler B & Q – giver brugerne mulighed for at rapportere art, antal og placering af bier, de stedet mellem nu og slutningen af ??august."(ref.)
"> By Jonathan Webb Science reporter, BBC News (ref.)
Dette system fungerer godt for sår og skrammer, men kan blive overvældet under massive traumer. (ref.)
Forskere ved Case Western Reserve University, Wayne State University og Virginia Tech i USA har syntetiseret de super-koagulation kugler – kaldet hæmostatiske nanopartikler. (ref.)
De små sfæriske partikler – nogle 200 gange tyndere end et menneskehår – har fangarm-lignende arme lavet af protein kæder. Disse arme danner forbindelser med naturlige koagulation celler til stede i blod, sammenklumpning dem sammen. (ref.)
Forskning offentliggjort i Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, forskerne fundet indsprøjte disse partikler ind i blodbanen af ??sårede mus bidraget til at forbedre overlevelsesprocenten fra 60% til 90%. (ref.)
De super-koagulation bolde kan vare op til to uger som et tørt pulver, og kan gøres til en løsning hurtigt ved blot at tilføje et salt eller sukker vand blanding. (ref.)
I øjeblikket mest blodprodukter, der anvendes til behandling af svær blødning skal være nedkølet og har en holdbarhed på et par dage.(ref.)

Arrangørerne af Storbritanniens første landsdækkende bi count håber en ny smartphone app vil skabe en buzz blandt landets borger forskere. (ref.)
De håber tusindvis af mennesker vil logge deres observationer for at give forskerne et afgørende indblik i sundheden for bibestande.(ref.)
Den app – udviklet af velgørenhed Buglife, Friends of the Earth og forhandler B & Q – giver brugerne mulighed for at rapportere art, antal og placering af bier, de stedet mellem nu og slutningen af ??august. (ref.)
"> The team at Stanford have published their findings in the Royal Society journal Interface.(ref.)
I april 2013 midt stigende bekymring over brugen af ??kemikalierne på afgrøder meddelte Europa-Kommissionen en EU-dækkende to-års moratorium på tre neonicotinoid kemikalier på afgrøder attraktive for bier. (ref.)
Den britiske regering imod indførelsen af ??restriktionerne, men har siden sagt det accepterer forbuddet, men ikke videnskaben bag det. (ref.)

Forskere fra Oxford University siger, at de har gjort et gennembrud i udviklingen af ??intelligente briller for folk med svær synstab.(ref.)
Brillerne forbedre billeder af nærliggende mennesker og genstande på linserne, hvilket giver en meget klarere fornemmelse af omgivelserne. (ref.)
De har lov til nogle mennesker til at se deres førerhunde for første gang. (ref.)
"> The finished vehicle will look very similar to this full-scale model (ref.)
"> It has to protect me from the aerodynamic loads at 1,000mph, which are up to 12 tonnes per square metre: that's the weight of three elephants standing together on the bonnet of a small car. (ref.)
Folk har elsket dem. De bemærke, hvor meget de kan se nu. De kan se detaljer i ansigter, de kan se deres egne hænder. Mennesker har kommenteret, hvordan de har set deres førerhund for første gang. Det er en reel katalysator. (ref.)
"> 50,000 radial g is why they are made from solid forged aluminium, as there is no tyre in the world that can survive that kind of load.(ref.)

Efter meddelelser, Toyotas brændselscelle sedan bil vil gå på salg i Japan og Californien i 2015, har virksomheden tilføjet Storbritannien, Tyskland og Danmark til listen. (ref.)
Toyotas FCV ("narre celle køretøj" siger kritikere) er drevet af elektricitet skabt af den kemiske reaktion mellem brint og ilt, efterlader vanddamp som eneste rørhale emission. (ref.)
Trouble er, bilerne har brug for re-påfyldning med brint, og infrastruktur til at gøre dette er nærmest ikke-eksisterende. Så hvorfor sætte dem til salg? (ref.)
Kritikere siger hybrider aldrig ville fange den. Men i sidste måned, Toyota indskåret op syv-milliontedel salg af sine hybrid modeller. (ref.)
Der er 13 brint tankstationer i Storbritannien, de fleste af dem er knyttet til akademiske og industriområder. (ref.)
Adskillige andre er allerede under udvikling, og Toyota siger, at der bør være omkring 15 offentligt tilgængelige stationer ved udgangen af ??2015. (ref.)
Danmark har også 15 stationer planlagt, og Tyskland har bekræftet 50 vil blive bygget i slutningen af ??2015. (ref.)
"> As part of the conference keynote lecture, I discussed some general equations of motion for Bloodhound and how different age groups can try to estimate the car's performance. (ref.)
I Storbritannien, den H2Mobility projekt, et statsligt industri initiativ oprettet i 2012 for at vurdere behovene i FCVs har identificeret, at en indledende netværk af omkring 65 brint tankstationer ville være tilstrækkelig til grundlæggende national rækkevidde i de tidlige år. (ref.)
Toyota selv anslår, at for at give FCVs en solid og varig fodfæste i Storbritannien, ville der skal være mindst én station inden en 200 km (120 miles) radius – primært langs motorveje og hovedveje – med mange flere koncentreret i byerne. (ref.)

En landbrugs skadedyr døbt stink bug kunne etablere sig i Det Forenede Kongerige, i henhold til en videnskabsmand. (ref.)
Zoolog Max Barclay sagde, at det var "det er kun et spørgsmål om tid", før den brune marmorated stink bug ankommer i landet. (ref.)
To af insekterne er allerede blevet fundet på importeret træ på vej til Storbritannien. (ref.)
Fejlen, der er hjemmehørende i Fjernøsten, har allerede nået Frankrig og Tyskland. (ref.)
Dens navn stammer fra det rådden stank det frigiver fra sine kirtler, når truet. (ref.)
Insektet blev først fundet i USA i slutningen af ??1990'erne, men har nu spredt over store dele af landet. Siden da er det blevet et alvorligt skadedyr i frugt, grøntsager og prydplanter.(ref.)
Stink bug (billede) (ref.)
"> Steering wheel(image) (ref.)
Chris Malumphy, senior entomolog ved den britiske regerings fødevarer og miljø Research Agency (Fera) fortalte magasinet Gartneri Week: "Vi har gjort en risikovurdering Der er beviser fejlen ville være i stand til at etablere sig i det sydlige England.. (ref.)
I Nordamerika, den når pest proportioner, og der er optegnelser over flere hundrede eller endda tusind i folks huse.

I forventer ikke plage proportioner her, men de gør et onde, at frastødende lugt afværge rovdyr , så et stort antal fejl, der kommer ind i dit hus er en temmelig overbevisende offentlige gener. " (ref.)

Urban landbrug spiller en stadig vigtigere rolle i den globale fødevaresikkerhed, har en undersøgelse foreslået. (ref.)
Dr. Drechsel sagde, at når urbane landbrug blev sammenlignet med andre (dvs. landdistrikterne) landbrugssystemer, resultaterne var overraskende. For eksempel, det samlede areal af ris landbrug i Sydasien var mindre end hvad der blev dyrket i byområder over hele verden.(ref.)
FN data viser, at mere end 50% af verdens befolkning bor nu i byområder, som kan forklare de skiftende landskab af globale landbrug. (ref.)
Anvendelse af Ghana som et eksempel, dr Drechsel sagde, at hovedparten af ??vegetabilske landmænd vandede deres afgrøder med forurenet vand. I Accra, anslås det, at op til 10% af husholdningernes spildevand indirekte blev genanvendt af byerne gårde.(ref.)

En voksende mængde forskning har identificeret en sammenhæng mellem adgang til grønne områder og velvære (ref.)
Der er igangsat en global videnskabelig forskning program i Kina for at undersøge de utilsigtede konsekvenser af bypolitik på menneskers sundhed og velvære. (ref.)
De fleste mennesker nu lever i byerne og den globale bybefolkning vokser med en anslået en million mennesker hver uge. (ref.)
Men siden 2008, flere mennesker bor i byerne end landdistrikterne. I øjeblikket, en anslået 3,9 mia mennesker bor i byområder. (ref.)
Denne samlede forventes at stige til over seks milliarder mennesker i midten af ??dette århundrede. (ref.)

Friends of the Earth sagde fordi grupperne allerede bor i naturen i Skotland, er bævere beskyttet i England under EU-lovgivning. (ref.)
De tre bævere, menes at være to voksne og en unge, blev først rapporteret at leve på floden i sommeren 2013, og ingen dato er indstillet til at fange dem. (ref.)

Det er uklart, hvor bæverne kom fra, men aktivister siger, at de skal have lov til at blive.(ref.)
En vild befolkning på mere end 150 dyr har etableret sig på floden Tay i Perthshire, i den østlige del af Skotland, mens en mindre officiel retssag genindførelse projektet har fundet sted i det vestlige Skotland i løbet af de seneste par år. (ref.)

Regeringen oprindeligt besluttede, at dyrene repræsenterede en mulig trussel, både til sundhed og på landet, og der bør tages ind til fangenskab. (ref.)
"> World Land Speed Record Holder (ref.)
"> However, this isn't quite as simple as it seems. In addition to Bloodhound's private MTN data network, there will be thousands of visitors on Hakskeen Pan next year, all coming to watch Bloodhound and all expecting mobile phone coverage. (ref.)

Vilde bævere fundet bor på floden Otter i Devon er en art, der engang var hjemmehørende i Storbritannien, har forsøg bekræftet. (ref.)
En avl familie blev først spottet sidste år, selv om det ikke vides, hvordan de kom til at være der. (ref.)
DNA resultater har vist de bævere er eurasiske stedet nordamerikanske. (ref.)

BBC videnskab redaktør David Shukman besøgt en fabrik i Kina, som producerer en forbløffende 500 klonede grise om året. Fordi grise har mange genetiske ligheder med mennesker, kan de tjene som nyttige "modeller" for afprøvning af nye lægemidler. Holdene anvender etablerede videnskab, men anvendelsen af ??masseproduktion er ny – og et yderligere tegn på Kinas stigende ambition i arenaen af ??videnskab og innovation. (ref.)
Kunne videnskab hjælp stoppe hajer angriber mennesker i havet? Som videnskab forfatter Helen Scales siger, mennesker dræber millioner flere hajer end hajer dræbe mennesker. Men efter en kontroversiel frasortering i Western Australia, er nogle forskere ser på, om nye tilgange såsom kemiske afskrækningsmidler og nye våddragt designs kunne hjælpe beskæftige sig med problemet. (ref.)

I Oklahoma Panhandle, den mest afsidesliggende område af staten, har de seneste regnskyl været så mager, at frygt er blevet antændt af en tilbagevenden til de apokalyptiske Dust Bowl scener af 1930'erne. I et ekko af denne ødelæggende periode har Panhandle oplevet frygtindgydende støvstorme, der har ødelagt afgrøder og opslugt byer. BBC News videnskab redaktør David Shukman rejste til området for at lære, hvad de udtørrede forhold betyder for økonomien og de landdistrikter ramt af den værste tørke i årtier.(ref.)

Fremskreden modermærkekræft – hudkræft, som har spredt sig til andre organer – har vist sig meget svært at behandle. (ref.)
Indtil for et par år siden gennemsnitlige overlevelsestid var omkring seks måneder.(ref.)
Forbedret overlevelse (ref.)
I et forsøg med 411 patienter, der evaluerer pembrolizumab – overlevede 69% af patienterne i mindst et år. (ref.)
"> Upper-chassis (image) (ref.)
Pembrolizumab ligner det har potentiale til at være et paradigmeskift for kræftbehandling.(ref.)
En af hans patienter, Warwick Steele, i alderen 64, har modtaget infusioner af pembrolizumab hver tredje uge siden oktober. (ref.)
"> Each airbrake door will experience about five tonnes of load at speeds of up to 800mph. The doors will need forcing out into the supersonic airflow, using huge hydraulic rams. However, to get the best performance, we will deploy the doors at a very specific rate, aiming to maintain the g force on Bloodhound at just under 3g. While this may not sound a lot, it equates to slowing down by 60mph every second. (ref.)
Jeg fik træt blot at stå op og var bogstaveligt talt alt for udmattet til at barbere. Men nu føler jeg mig tilbage til normal, og kan gøre havearbejde og gå på indkøb. (ref.)
Scanninger af hans lunger – vist ovenfor – afslører, at efter blot tre infusioner, synes stoffet til at have helt ryddet kræft fra hans lunge. (ref.)
Hop media playerMedia player Helpout af media player. Tryk Enter for at vende tilbage eller fane for at fortsætte. (ref.)
Warwick Steele siger den behandling, ryddet hans lunge kræft har været en livline (ref.)
"> Bloodhound will have superior aerodynamics, a Eurofighter jet engine and a rocket to try to get it to the next level. (ref.)
Det andet lægemiddel, nivolumab, blev testet i kombination med en eksisterende licens immunterapi, Ipilimumab. (ref.)
I et forsøg med 53 patienter, var overlevelsen 85% efter et år, og 79% efter to år. (ref.)

Den forskning, publiceret i tidsskriftet Nature, fandt genet kunne fordoble sandsynligheden for at få lungekræft. (ref.)
Undersøgelsen sammenlignede genetiske koder af mennesker med og uden lungekræft. (ref.)
Rygere har 40 gange chancen for at udvikle lungekræft, men dem med en BRCA2 mutation var næsten 80 gange mere sandsynligt, viste analysen. (ref.)
En fjerdedel af dem, der bærer mutationen, og som også ryger, vil gå på at udvikle lungekræft, sagde forskerholdet. (ref.)
Mutationer til BRCA gener stoppe DNA fra reparere sig selv effektivt. (ref.)
Der er i forbindelse med rygning sådan en enorm mængde af DNA skader, tab af DNA-reparation vil være et problem, tilføjede Prof Houlston. (ref.)
Opdagelsen kan betyde behandlinger, der udvikles for brystkræft kan også virke i nogle tilfælde af lungekræft. (ref.)
Vi har kendt i to årtier, der arvede mutationer i BRCA2 gjort folk mere tilbøjelige til at udvikle brystkræft og kræft i æggestokkene, men disse nye resultater viser en større risiko for lungekræft også, især for mennesker, der ryger, siger professor Peter Johnson, Cancer Research UK er chef kliniker. (ref.)
Vigtigere denne forskning tyder på, at behandlinger designet til bryst- og ovariecancer også kan være effektiv i lungekræft, hvor vi har hårdt brug for nye lægemidler.

But, med eller uden en af ??disse genetiske fejl, den mest effektive måde at reducere risikoen for lungekræft er at være en ikke-ryger. " (ref.)

Ekstremt små stykker af guld kan blive smuglet ind i kræftceller (ref.)
Diminutive stykker af guld kan hjælpe med at forbedre behandlingen til aggressive hjerne kræft, ifølge forskningen offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Nanoscale. (ref.)
Forskere manipuleret ekstremt små gyldne kugler, belægning dem med en kemoterapi stof.(ref.)
Når de små partikler blev infunderet i centrum af tumorceller, kræft stoppet replikerende og mange syge celler døde. (ref.)
Forskere håber det kan give en måde at målrette vanskelige at behandle kræft. (ref.)
Golden kerne ' (ref.)
Glioblastoma multiforme er en almindelig form for kræft i hjernen, der påvirker mere end 4.000 voksne i Storbritannien hvert år. (ref.)
"> Engine testing (image) (ref.)
Forskere skabt nanosfærer – partikler, der var fire millioner gange mindre end et tværsnit af et enkelt menneskehår. (ref.)
På deres kerne var bittesmå stykker af guld, omgivet af lag af cisplatin – et almindeligt anvendt kemoterapi narkotika. (ref.)
I forsøg med prøver fra humane kræftformer, kuglerne syntes at øge effektiviteten af ??konventionelle strålebehandling og kemoterapi, forbedre chancerne for, at alle tumorcellerne blev dræbt. (ref.)
Forskerne testede nanospheres på hjernens-tumor prøver udvundet under operationen.(ref.)
Kræftcellerne fik derefter en dosis af strålebehandling, spejling i øjeblikket tilgængelig behandling. (ref.)
Strålebehandlingen ikke kun angrebet tumorcellerne det også eksiterede elektroner inden den gyldne kerne. De ophidsede elektroner udløste fordelingen af ??genetisk materiale (DNA) inden for kræft. (ref.)
Denne proces førte også til udgivelsen af ??det omgivende kemoterapi, gør det muligt for cisplatin for at arbejde på den nu svækket tumor. (ref.)
Udfordrende tumorer ' (ref.)
Tyve dage senere syntes der ikke at være nogen levedygtige cancerceller tilbage i behandlede prøver. (ref.)

Konventionelle batterier lagre store reservoirer af energi og drop-foder det langsomt, mens supercapacitors hurtigt kan varetage hele deres belastning. (ref.)
"> Such soft-bodied, octopus-inspired arms would not be limited by fixed joints, he explained. This could be useful to access narrow, difficult to reach spaces – perhaps getting help to people trapped at the scene of a collapsed building. (ref.)
Frigivelse denne torrent kræver elektroder med stort overfladeareal – en af ??graphene mange fænomenale egenskaber. (ref.)
Stærkere end diamant, mere ledende end kobber og mere fleksibel end gummi, det "mirakel materiale" var målet for en £ 50m investeringer UK kansler George Osborne. (ref.)
Men mens dette kulstof monolag er state-of-the-art materiale til kommercielle supercapacitors, er uoverkommeligt dyre at producere. (ref.)
Finde billige, bæredygtige alternativer er specialitet af Dr. Mitlin tidligere forskningsgruppe ved University of Alberta.(ref.)
De har eksperimenteret med alle varianter af bioaffald – fra tørvemos til æg. Senest har de slået bananskræl til batterier. (ref.)
George Osborne (billede) (ref.)
George Osborne investeret £ 50m i graphene(ref.)
"> Toyota's hydrogen powered car on show earlier this year in Las Vegas (ref.)
Tricket er at skræddersy den rigtige plante fiber til højre elektrisk enhed – i henhold til deres organiske struktur. (ref.)
Med bananskræller, kan du gøre dem til en tæt blok af kulstof – vi kalder det pseudo-grafit – og det er fantastisk for natrium ion batterier, forklarede han. (ref.)
Men hvis man ser på hampefibre dens struktur er det modsatte – det gør ark med stort overfladeareal – og det er meget befordrende for supercapacitors. (ref.)
Det første skridt, forklarede han, "er at koge det -. Næsten som en trykkoger Det hedder hydrotermisk syntese. (ref.)
Når du opløse lignin og semicellulose, efterlader disse kulstof nanosheets – en pseudo-graphene struktur. (ref.)
Ved at opdigte disse plader i elektroder og tilføje en ionisk væske som elektrolyt, hans team gjort supercapacitors, der opererer på en bred vifte af temperaturer og en høj energitæthed. (ref.)
Direkte sammenligninger med rivaliserende enheder er kompliceres af de mange forskellige foranstaltninger for performance. (ref.)
"> They can also be picked up through contact with contaminated surfaces such as changing room floors and the areas surrounding swimming pools. (ref.)
"> But its move towards smartness hasn't been a smooth one. (ref.)
"> We are basically challenging them to try and break the network, said Mr Hilton. It is all part of a plan to turn the city into a living lab""." høje hamp planter (billede) (ref.)
Færdigmonteret, deres energitæthed er 12 Wh / kg, hvilket kan opnås ved en opladningstid mindre end seks sekunder. (ref.)

Likewise, total maize production in sub-Saharan Africa was not as large as the area under cultivation in urban areas around the world. På en måde, THC og CBD er lidt ligesom yin og yang. Det THC gør dig stenet, men det kan også gøre dig ængstelig. Det kan også gøre du føler dig lidt psykotisk, og det vil i alvorlig grad påvirke din hukommelse. ££ kr NYLINIE " 10% af mennesker, der bruger det vil blive afhængige af narkotika
Prof Val Curran
University College London
The anden side af yin / yang er CBD, som har næsten den modsatte effekt . CBD beroliger dig ned, det har anti-psykotiske egenskaber og det også udligner virkningerne på hukommelsen, så på CBD-holdige cannabis du er mindre tilbøjelige til at glemme, hvad der foregår. "" "(ref.)
Ukrudtet så kender til mange af min generation var præget af en relativt balanceret mængde af THC og CBD. (ref.)
I dag er langt de fleste af cannabis til salg på gaderne er unrecognisably stærkere. (ref.)
Kendt som skunk, det indeholder en langt større andel af THC – så meget som 15% – som frembringer en meget mere kraftfuld høj, hvilket gør det mere tiltrækkende for brugerne. (ref.)
Men på samme tid, fordi det indeholder næsten ingen af ??CBD, som kunne mindske dens virkninger, risikoen er tilsvarende større. (ref.)

Dette var en afgørende forskel mellem opkald og fagter, sagde Dr. Hobaiter. (ref.)
Det er lidt ligesom hvis du afhente en varm kop kaffe, og du skrige og blæse på fingrene, sagde hun. (ref.)
Jeg kan forstå fra at kaffen var varmt, men du ikke nødvendigvis til hensigt at formidle det til mig. (ref.)
Nogle af Chimps 'gestus, siger forskerne, er utvetydige – bruges konsekvent at formidle en betydning. (ref.)
Leaf klipning, for eksempel, hvor en chimpanse meget naturligvis tager små bidder fra bladene bruges kun til at fremkalde seksuel opmærksomhed. (ref.)
Den vage gestus betydninger tyder enten at chimpanser har meget lidt at kommunikere, eller vi mangler stadig en masse af oplysningerne i deres bevægelser og handlinger, sagde hun.(ref.)
Desuden synes de betydninger ikke ud over, hvad andre mindre sofistikerede dyr formidle med ikke-verbal kommunikation.
So, ser det ud til Golfen tilbage. "" (ref.)

Forskere har fanget udbredelsen af ??en ny type værktøj brug i en vild bestand af chimpanser. (ref.)
De siger dette er den første klare beviser for vilde chimpanser udvikle en ny kultur. (ref.)
Da holdet filmet dyrene på en feltstation i Uganda, bemærkede de, at nogle af dem begyndte at lave en ny type blad svamp – noget dyrene bruger til at drikke. (ref.)
Denne nye adfærd hurtigt spredt over hele gruppen. (ref.)
Chimpanse ved hjælp af et blad svamp (c) Catherine Hobaiter (billede) (ref.)
Leaf svampe tillader vilde chimpanser at drikke fra vandhuller (ref.)
Da forskerne så dyrene, så de adfærden spredes fra chimpanse til chimpanse (ref.)

Chippen er implanteret under en kvindes hud, frigiver en lille dosis af levonorgestrel, et hormon. (ref.)
Dette vil ske hver dag i 16 år, men kan stoppes når som helst ved hjælp af en trådløs fjernbetjening. (ref.)
Projektet er støttet af Bill Gates, og vil blive forelagt til præklinisk afprøvning i USA næste år – og muligvis gå på salg i 2018. (ref.)
Enheden foranstaltninger 20mm x 20mm x 7mm og vil blive "en konkurrencedygtig pris", sagde dens skabere. (ref.)
Bekvemmelighed faktor (ref.)
Bittesmå reservoirer af hormonet er gemt på en 1,5 cm bred mikrochip i indretningen. (ref.)
"> A festive collection of some of the best reads from the BBC's Science and Environment section this year. (ref.)
"> Brain (image) (ref.)
"> The book that helped save UK's forests. By Mark Kinver (ref.)
Denne udfordring åbner døren til denne form for implantat teknologi, der anvendes i områder, hvor adgangen til traditionelle præventionsmidler er begrænset – en større prioritet, argumenterede Gavin Corley, en biomedicinsk ingeniør. (ref.)
Det er en humanitær ansøgning i modsætning til at tilfredsstille en første verden behov, sagde han til BBC. (ref.)

Silicium har den interessante egenskab, at når lyset rammer det, kan det banke løs elektronerne, der limning atomerne sammen, siger han. Disse elektroner er nu fri til at vandre rundt. (ref.)
"> The teenager from Sarasota, Florida, became interested in neural networks – a form of artificial intelligence that continuously learns and mimics the human brain – in high school. (ref.)
Det er hans job, som solcelle designer, for at give disse elektroner en følelse af formål. (ref.)
Vi sætter materialer på overfladen af ??cellen, således at hvis en elektron kommer tæt på det, trækker det ud, siger han. Hver elektron sollyset udskærer efterlader, hvad han kalder "et hul". (ref.)
Hele spillet i at designe en effektiv solcelle er at overbevise elektronerne til at komme ud en tråd og hullerne til at komme ud på den anden, siger han. (ref.)
Og udfordringen for ingeniører er at gøre det gradvist mere effektivt og billigere. (ref.)
Ligesom Moores lov prognose en eksponentiel stigning i antallet af transistorer på en chip, Swanson lov forudsiger en eksponentiel fald i prisen på solenergi. Hvad han prognose er, at hver gang antallet af solceller i verden fordobles, omkostningerne ved at gøre en ville falde 20%. (ref.)
Og denne lov også har vist sig bemærkelsesværdigt præcise. Priserne er faldet som en sten siden – fra $ 100 per watt i 70'erne, ned til mindre end $ 1 pr watt nu.(ref.)

Forskere har produceret en ny computerchip, der efterligner organiseringen af ??hjernen, og klemt i en million beregningsmæssige enheder kaldet "neuroner". (ref.)
De beskriver det som en supercomputer på størrelse med et frimærke. (ref.)
Hver neuron på chippen tilsluttes til 256 andre, og sammen kan udvælge de vigtigste funktioner i en visuel scene i realtid, ved hjælp af meget lidt strøm. (ref.)
Designet er resultatet af en langvarig samarbejde, ledet af IBM, og offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Science. (ref.)
Han fortalte BBC News processoren var "en ny maskine til en ny æra". Men det vil tage nogen tid for chippen, døbt TrueNorth, at være kommercielt nyttig. (ref.)
Dr. Modha og hans team lykkedes at konstruere et sammenkoblet 64-by-64 gitter af disse kerner på en enkelt chip, der leverer mere end en million neuroner i alt. (ref.)
Fordi hver neuron er tilsluttet til 256 andre, der er mere end 256 mio tilslutninger eller "synapser". (ref.)
Denne kompleksitet er imponerende for en menneskeskabt enhed lige 3cm tværs, men stadig blegner i sammenligning med orglet det emulerer. Biologiske neuroner, pakket inde i hjernen, sende og modtage noget i størrelsesordenen 10.000 forbindelser hver.(ref.)
Chippen, Dr. Modha er hurtig til at påpege, er "uendeligt skalerbar". Flere enheder kan tilsluttes sammen for at danne en anden, endnu mere kraftfuld samling. (ref.)
Dette er ikke en forbedring på 10-15%, sagde han. "Du taler om ordrer og størrelsesordener."(ref.)
tilslutningsmuligheder diagram (billede) (ref.)
Hver af 4.096 "neurosynaptic kerner" på chippen indeholder 256 neuroner, som forbinder til 256 andre neuroner i og uden at kernen; dette diagram viser forbindelser mellem blot 64 kerner (ref.)
For at demonstrere TrueNorth evner, Dr. Modha team programmeret den til at gøre en visuel opfattelse party trick. (ref.)
Inden for en video filmet fra et tårn på Stanford University, en enkelt chip analyserede de bevægelige billeder i realtid og med succes identificeret, hvilke pletter af pixels repræsenterede fodgængere, cyklister, biler, busser og lastbiler. (ref.)
Der er også en rival chip lavet af et selskab kaldet Movidius, som fru Wilson forklarede er ikke så fleksibel (det er designet meget specifikt at behandle billeder), men bruger endnu mindre strøm end TrueNorth. (ref.)
Det produkt, som vi kan se i enheder, så snart næste år, også har løftet elementer i sin computing strategi fra den menneskelige hjerne. (ref.)

Kakao karantæne flyttet fra den kongelige botaniske have, Kew, til Reading i 1985 (ref.)
En ny facilitet er åbnet i Reading, at sikre fremtiden for chokolade. (ref.)
Det er en større og bedre clearing house for alle verdens nye kakao sorter, som skal i karantæne, før de kan dyrkes. (ref.)
Efterspørgslen efter chokolade stiger hurtigere end det globale udbud af kakao, hvoraf skønsmæssigt 30% er tabt for skadedyr og sygdomme hvert år. (ref.)
Det konsoliderer samling af 400 sorter i et enkelt, forbedret drivhus og bør gøre karantæne processen hurtigere, billigere og grønnere. (ref.)
Vi bruger en masse energi at holde kakao planter i tropiske forhold, og vi kan gøre det meget mere effektivt i denne nye facilitet, Prof Hadley fortalte BBC. (ref.)
"> It's a waste product looking for a value-added application. People are almost paying you to take it away. (ref.)
To "meget grøn-fingered teknikere" passe anlægget dyrebare samling (ref.)
Den kølige UK Klimaet er værdifuld som godt, fordi det betyder, at internationale Cocoa Karantæne Centre (ICQC) er isoleret fra den type sygdomme, der kan påvirke kakao steder nærmere sin oprindelse, ligesom Syd- og Mellemamerika og Caribien. (ref.)
Efter op til to år i karantæne, er rene og sikre kakao frø afsendt fra Reading til nogle 20 forskellige lande, herunder flere i Vestafrika.(ref.)
Der er en vis bekymring i branchen, at efterspørgslen er stigende ubønhørligt – især i lande som Kina, hvor levestandarden er stigende, og folk får smag for nogle af disse confectionaries, sagde professor Hadley. (ref.)

De kan være i en kamp med kragen familien til titlen som mest intelligente fugl. (ref.)
Og Goffin kakaduer har nu vist en imponerende evne til at lære af hinanden, hvordan man bruger og endda hvordan man laver redskaber.(ref.)
Et hold af forskere har opdaget, at fuglene emulere værktøj-making tricks, når de demonstreres til dem af en anden fugl. (ref.)
Det bekræfter, hvordan innovative og hvordan tilpasses denne art er at nye problemer (ref.)
Kakaduer er meget interessant for dette, fordi de er meget legesyg med objekter, forklarede ledende forsker Dr. Alice Auersperg, fra University of Oxford og universitetet i Wien.(ref.)
Hun og hendes kolleger havde allerede bemærket, at en af ??fugle i deres forskning voliere, opkaldt Figaro, spontant brugte pinde til at trække møtrikkerne under søjlerne. (ref.)
Figaro arbejdede også ud af at gøre hans "fiskeri pinde" ved stripning lange, tynde stykker fra en træklods i hans kabinet. (ref.)
Så vi havde en innovator, og et meget vigtigt aspekt af innovation [er] hvordan det kan spredes i en gruppe, dr Auersperg forklarede BBC News. (ref.)
For at undersøge dette, forskerne oprette et eksperiment, hvor seks fugle blev vist ved Figaro, hvordan at fratage en blok og fisk til en møtrik. (ref.)
Efter at have set demonstrationen, de fleste af fuglene var i stand held til at lave deres egen stribe af træ, og bruge det til at hente et stykke mad. (ref.)
Fangstmetode (ref.)
"> Interestingly, the team also compiled the figures for bonobos, with strikingly different results: just a single suspected killing from 92 combined years of observation at four different sites. This is consistent with the established view of bonobos as a less violent species of ape. (ref.)
Cockatoo stripning et værktøj fra en træklods (c) En Auersperg (billede) (ref.)
Fuglene gør 'mad fiskeri pinde "ved stripning blokke af træ (ref.)
Figaro, forklarede hun, havde udviklet er egen metode for at bruge værktøjet som en slags rake. (ref.)
Holder enden mellem hans kæbe og hans tunge, ville opfindsomme fugl løbende skifte position pind til at rive møtrikken mod ham selv.(ref.)
Om at se denne demonstration, fuglene i denne undersøgelse opnåede samme resultat hurtigere ved at stille møtrikken mod sig selv med stokken. (ref.)
Det er meget interessant, at de kommer op med denne mere effektiv teknik, sagde Dr. Auersperg. (ref.)
Den bekræfter, hvordan innovative og hvordan tilpasses denne art er at nye problemer. (ref.)
Forskerne siger, at det er særligt overraskende, hvordan værktøj brug kan "socialt transmitteres" i en fugl, der har store vanskeligheder at holde en lige redskab i sin krumme næb. (ref.)
Kakaduer har heller ingen økologiske grund til at holde og anvende sådanne lige, tynde genstande, da de ikke bygge reder i naturen.(ref.)

En seniorforsker ved Large Hadron Collider, siger en ny partikel kunne påvises i år, der er endnu mere spændende end Higgs boson.(ref.)
Speederen skyldes at komme tilbage online i marts efter en opgradering, der har givet det et stort løft i energi. (ref.)
Dette kunne tvinge den første såkaldte supersymmetrisk partikel at dukke op i maskinen, med den mest sandsynlige kandidat er den gluino. (ref.)
Supersymmetri er en tilføjelse til Standardmodellen, der beskriver naturens fundamentale partikler og deres samspil. (ref.)
Susy, som det undertiden kaldes, udfylder nogle huller i modellen og giver et grundlag for at forene naturens kræfter. (ref.)
Den forudsiger hver af partiklerne til at have mere massive partnere. Så den partikel, der bærer lys – fotonen – ville have en partner kaldet photino. Den kvark, byggesten af ??et atom er protoner og neutroner, ville have en partner kaldet squark. (ref.)
Men da LHC blev kolliderende sagen på sine pre-opgradering energier, blev der ikke tegn på disse superparticles ses i resterne, hvilket førte til en vis bestyrtelse blandt teoretikere. (ref.)
Nu med speederen om at genåbne i de kommende uger, er der høj håb kan findes de første beviser for Susy. (ref.)
Maskinen kommer til at fordoble kollisionen energi, tage den i et domæne, hvor disse teoretikere siger gluino virkelig burde dukke op i tilstrækkeligt antal til at blive bemærket. Den gluino er superpartner af gluon, som "lim" kvarkerne sammen inde protoner og neutroner.(ref.)
LHC er detektorer vil ikke se det direkte. Hvad de ville spore er dens forfald, som forskerne så skulle rekonstruere. (ref.)
Men vigtigere er det, bør disse henfald produkter omfatter den letteste og mest stabile superparticle, kendt som neutralino – partiklen, at forskere har foreslået, er, hvad der gør op mørkt stof, den manglende masse i kosmos, der gravitationelt binder galakser sammen på himlen, men som ikke kan ses direkte med teleskoper. (ref.)
Dette ville rocke verden, "sagde professor Heinemann. For mig er det mere spændende end Higgs. " (ref.)
Den anden side " (ref.)
Så ikke blot ville supersymmetri fortalere være opstemt, fordi de ville have deres første superparticle, men videnskaben i almindelighed vil have en fast fod på vejen til at forstå mørkt stof. (ref.)
Dr. Michael Williams, fra Massachusetts Institute of Technology, siger: "Vi sommetider taler om det mørke stof partikel, men det er helt plausibelt, at mørkt stof er lige så interessant som [normal] sag, [som] har en masse af partikler, som vi kender til. (ref.)

Forskere har patenteret en ny måde at gøre ultra high-res skærme, der kan bøjes og er tusindedele af en mm tyk. (ref.)
De brugte en minimal lag af en fase-change materiale, der vipper mellem to kemiske tilstand, når ramt med strøm. (ref.)
Ved klemning den mellem transparente elektroder, gjorde de pixels kun 300 nanometer på tværs af og producerede billeder mindre end bredden af ??menneskehår. (ref.)
Design, offentliggjort i Nature, kunne være nyttig i wearable teknologi, smarte kontaktlinser eller foldbare skærme. (ref.)
Nøglen til det nye design er et meget tyndt lag af et af disse materialer: en legering indeholdende germanium, antimon og tellur (Ge2Sb2Te5, eller "GST" for korte). (ref.)
Stedet for at bruge GST at kode ettaller og nuller i ringene i en DVD, Prof Bhaskaran team klemt det ind mellem to lag af et transparent materiale, der leder elektricitet, der producerer en trelags film ikke tykkere end 0.0002mm. Derefter de malede et billede i GST, pixel-for-pixel, ved at levere strøm til forskellige punkter på tværs af filmen. (ref.)
"> But why silicon? (ref.)
semi-transparent film lavet af fase skiftende materiale (billede) (ref.)
Holdet producerede film, der var fleksibel og semi-transparent (ref.)
De viste også, at teknikken kunne producere forskellige farveændringer, ved at anvende forskellige tykkelser for de ydre lag af sandwichen. (ref.)

Brasilianske forskere i Rio de Janeiro har udgivet tusindvis af myg inficeret med bakterier, der undertrykker denguefeber. (ref.)
Håbet er, at de vil formere, race og bliver størstedelen af ??myg og dermed reducere tilfælde af sygdommen. (ref.)
Initiativet er en del af et program også finder sted i Australien, Vietnam og Indonesien. (ref.)
De intracellulære bakterier, Wolbachia, at blive indført, kan ikke overføres til mennesker. (ref.)
Ti tusind myg vil blive frigivet hver måned i fire måneder med den første udgivelse i Tubiacanga, i det nordlige Rio. (ref.)
Gode ??"bakterier (ref.)
Bakterien Wolbachia er fundet i 60% af insekter. Det fungerer som en vaccine til myg, som bærer dengue, Aedes aegypti, standse dengue virus formerer sig i sin krop. (ref.)
Wolbachia har også en effekt på reproduktionen. Hvis en forurenet mandlig befrugter æggene i en kvindelig uden bakterier, behøver disse æg ikke bliver til larver. (ref.)
Hvis den mandlige og kvindelige er forurenet, eller hvis kun en kvindelig har bakterierne, vil alle fremtidige generationer af myg bære Wolbachia. (ref.)
Som et resultat, Aedes myg med Wolbachia bliver fremherskende uden forskere har konstant frigive mere forurenede insekter. (ref.)
I Australien dette skete inden for 10 uger i gennemsnit. (ref.)
Forskningen på Wolbachia begyndte på University of Monash i Australien i 2008. Forskerne tillod myggene at fodre på deres egne arme i fem år på grund af bekymringer på det tidspunkt Wolbachia kunne inficere mennesker og husdyr. (ref.)
Dengue genopstod i Brasilien i 1981 efter et fravær på mere end 20 år. (ref.)
Over de næste 30 år blev syv millioner tilfælde rapporteret. (ref.)
Brasilien fører verden i antallet af dengue tilfælde med 3,2 millioner tilfælde og 800 dødsfald rapporteret i perioden 2009-14. (ref.)

Spinosaurus menes at være den største kendte kødædende og ville have feasted på store fisk og hajer (ref.)
"> You need some mechanism to make sure that if you are transferring the stuff, you're not transferring pests and diseases. (ref.)
De 95 millioner år gamle rester bekræfte en mangeårige teori: at dette er den første kendte svømning dinosaur. (ref.)
Forskere siger dyret havde flade, padle-lignende fødder og næsebor oven på sin crocodilian hoved, der ville tillade det at dykke med lethed.(ref.)
Mens andre gamle skabninger, såsom plesiosaur og mosasaur, boede i vandet, er de marine krybdyr snarere end dinosaurer, hvilket gør Spinosaurus den eneste kendte semi-akvatiske dinosaur. (ref.)
Forskerne siger, at på mere end 15 m (50 ft) fra næse til hale, var potentielt den største af alle de kødædende dinosaurer – større end selv den mægtige Tyrannosaurus rex. (ref.)
Den fossile blev udgravet fra Kem Kem fossile senge i Marokko (ref.)
Forskerne siger, at Spinosaurus boede på et sted, de beskriver som "the river af giganter", en vandvej, der strakte sig fra Marokko til Egypten. (ref.)
De mener, det ville have feasted på gigantiske hajer og andre bil-store fisk kaldet blå fisk og lungefisk, konkurrerer med enorme krokodille-lignende skabninger for sit bytte. (ref.)

Dinosaurer passer i en mellemliggende klasse mellem varme og koldblodede dyr, en undersøgelse i tidsskriftet Science hævder.(ref.)
Forskerne sammenlignede vækstrater på hundredvis af levende og uddøde arter, ved hjælp af årringe og knogle størrelse til at beregne satserne for dinosaurer. (ref.)
De er knyttet vækstrate til stofskifte, mål for energiforbrug, der skiller varme og koldblodede dyr. (ref.)
Undersøgelsen tyder på, at dinosaurerne falder i en midterste kategori, i en frisk bidrag til en varig debat. (ref.)
Varmblodede dyr, ligesom pattedyr og fugle, brug for en masse brændstof og bruge denne energi til deres fordel, herunder hurtigere bevægelser og boostet hjerne magt. Med at brænde al den mad, de også har et højt, stabilt kropstemperatur. (ref.)
De har taget rigtig, empiriske data fra levende dyr, og komme op med en model (ref.)
Forskere definerer disse forskellige strategier som "endothermy" (endo til inde, therm til varme) og "ectothermy". (ref.)
Størrelsen og den årlige vækst ringe af forstenede knogler kan bruges til at beregne, hvor hurtigt dinosaurer voksede (ref.)
Beviserne for denne idé kommer fra en stor undersøgelse af vækstraterne i 381 forskellige arter, herunder 21 dinosaurer. Fordi knogler viser årringe meget som træer, størrelsen af ??forstenede dinosaur knogler på forskellige alderstrin giver palæontologer at beregne, hvor hurtigt de tage på gennem et helt liv. (ref.)
Oplysninger fra de hundredvis af levende arter viste, at stofskifte – sandwich faktoren – er højere i dyr, der vokser hurtigere. (ref.)
Hvis du fordobler dit stofskifte, du omtrent fordoble din vækstrate, sagde hr Grady. (ref.)
Så han og hans kolleger tog vækstrate som indikator for stofskiftet, og fandt, at dinosaurerne besatte en mellemvej, et sted i mellem moderne krybdyr og pattedyr. (ref.)
Forskerne foreslår en ny kategori "mesothermic" for dinosaurerne sammen nogle usædvanlige levende arter som tun og den store hvide haj (ref.)

Archaeopteryx havde pennaceous (fjerpen-lignende) fjer over hele sin krop, ikke kun dens vinger, en ny fossil – kun den 11. væsen fundet – afslører. (ref.)
Disse "bukser" var sandsynligvis bruges til visning, siger forskere fra Tyskland, skriver i Nature journal. (ref.)
Deres opdagelse tilføjer vægt til den teori, at fjer oprindeligt udviklet til andre formål end flyvning formål. (ref.)
Jeg er temmelig sikker på det kunne flyve, selv om der stadig er en debat om, hvor godt det kunne flyve (ref.)
Disse "bukser", som han beskriver dem, kan have været brugt til udstilling, camouflage, isolering, rugende og manøvrering, mens på jorden. (ref.)
De var ikke primært designet til flyvning, men måske har hjulpet støt fuglen under landing, svarende til bagbenet fjer af høge, ørne og andre moderne rovfugle. (ref.)
De vingefjer af ny prøve viser robuste aksler – yderligere dokumentation for, at den "første fugl" virkelig kunne flyve. (ref.)
Bukserne er også en ny nøgle til mysteriet om, hvordan flyvning udviklet sig i moderne fugle.(ref.)
"> (ref.)
"> I reconstructed the skeleton to see what it might have looked like and then began to reconstruct the muscles and how they connected with the skeleton. From that we can begin to say how effective its muscles were and eventually in the future we would like to reconstruct how it moved, she told BBC News.(ref.)

Changyuraptor brugt sine bemærkelsesværdigt lange halefjer til at udjævne sin landing (ref.)
Dens bemærkelsesværdige halefjer – måler op til 30 cm – er den længste i enhver ikke-aviær dinosaur. (ref.)
Halen ville have fungeret som en pitch kontrolstruktur reducere afstamning hastighed … som kunne være afgørende for en sikker landing eller præcis angreb på bytte (ref.)
Disse gamle skabninger tilbyde spor til oprindelsen søgning – og overgangen fra fjervildt dinosaurer til fugle. (ref.)
Men de seneste fossile opdagelser tyder på, at microraptorines var en evolutionær side-filial.(ref.)
Flight formentlig udviklet sig mange gange i forskellige fjer arter – ikke kun afstamning som i sidste ende blev til fugle. (ref.)
Konkluderede de ved at beregne løft og træk genereret af fjerene, at C. Yangi brugt sin lange hale for at kompensere for sin store størrelse og bevare kontrollen, mens luften. (ref.)

Alle dinosaurer var dækket med fjer eller havde potentiale til at vokse fjer, en undersøgelse antyder. (ref.)
Opdagelsen af ??150 millioner år gamle fossiler i Sibirien viser, at fjer var meget mere udbredt blandt dinosaurer end tidligere antaget. (ref.)
Fundet "har fuldstændig ændret vores vision om dinosaurer", den ledende forsker fortalte BBC News. (ref.)
Detaljerne er blevet offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Science. (ref.)
Det er en stor opdagelse. Det har fuldstændig ændret vores vision om dinosaurer (ref.)
Væsenet, kaldet Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus, var omkring 1 m lang, med en kort snude, lange bagben, korte arme og fem stærke fingre.(ref.)
Dens tænder viser klare tilpasninger for tygge planter. (ref.)
Hidtil har forstenet beviser for flagrende dinosaurer kommer fra Kina og fra en kød spise gruppe kaldet theropods. (ref.)
Den seneste opdagelse, i Rusland, er fra en helt separat gruppe af plante-ædende dinosaurer kaldet ornithischians – som tegner sig for halvdelen af ??alle dinosaurer. (ref.)
Det faktum, at fjer nu er opdaget i to forskellige grupper, theropods i Kina og ornithischians i Rusland betyder, at den fælles forfader af disse arter, som kunne have eksisteret 220 millioner år siden sandsynligvis også havde fjer. (ref.)
Opdagelsen har "fuldstændig ændret vores syn på dinosaurer", tilføjede han. (ref.)
I stedet for at tænke på dinosaurer som tørre, skræmmende skællende skabninger en masse af dem faktisk havde en fluffy, dunet dækker ligesom fjer på en kylling, sagde co-forsker Dr. Maria McNamara af Cork University i Irland.(ref.)
Så gør alle billederne af dinosaurer i børnebøger skal være gentegnes at lave skabninger som Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex og den onde Velociraptor, fluffier og mere nuttet? (ref.)
"> They also wanted to measure the rate of evolution in dinosaurs using a large data set.(ref.)
"> And for that reason, he has given the beast a name that recalls the massive battleships that revolutionised naval warfare in the early 1900s.(ref.)
Det centrale punkt er, at dinosaurer var alle oprindeligt fjer og varmblodede, bekræftelse af en idé, der har hersket i årevis, sagde han.(ref.)
Fjer blev brugt først til isolering og signalering; de kun senere blev tilpasset til flyvning. (ref.)

Krop træk analyse viser miniaturisering af theropods startede omkring 50 millioner år før Archaeopteryx, den tidligste fugl, boede. (ref.)
Kæmpe kødspisning, landlevende dinosaurer udviklede sig til fugle ved konstant faldende i mere end 50 millioner år har forskere afsløret.(ref.)
Theropods skrumpet 12 gange fra 163 kg (25st £ 9) til 0,8 kg (£ 1,8), før han bliver moderne fugle. (ref.)
"> Marsh's team found two long-necked sauropods. He named one Apatosaurus ajax (Apatosaurus means deceptive lizard"") and the second skeleton Brontosaurus excelsus (Brontosaurus means ""thunder lizard"")." Forskerne fandt theropods var de eneste dinosaurer til at få løbende mindre. (ref.)
Deres skeletter også ændret fire gange hurtigere end andre dinosaurer, hjælpe dem med at overleve. (ref.)
Forfatterne anvendte avancerede analytiske redskaber – udviklet af molekylærbiologer forsøger at forstå virus evolution – at studere mere end 1.500 dinosaur krop træk kodet fra 120 veldokumenterede arter af theropod og tidlige fugle. (ref.)
De fandt, at dinosaur-gruppen direkte relateret til fugle skrumpede hurtigt fra omkring 200 millioner år siden. (ref.)
Det viste et fald i kropsvægt på 162,2 kg (25st £ 7) fra den største gennemsnitlige kropsstørrelse til Archaeopteryx, den tidligste kendte fugl. (ref.)
Fugle udviklet sig gennem en unik fase af vedvarende miniaturisering i dinosaurer, sagde hr Lee. (ref.)
At være mindre og lettere i landet giganter, med hastig udvikling anatomiske tilpasninger, forudsat disse fugle forfædre med nye økologiske muligheder, såsom evnen til at klatre i træer, glide og flyve.
Ultimately, denne evolutionære fleksibilitet hjulpet fugle overlever dødbringende meteorit konsekvenser, som dræbt alle deres dinosaurian kusiner. " (ref.)
Ingen overnight transformation ' (ref.)
Forskerne mener, at miniaturisering og udvikling af fugle-lignende træk haft en medindflydelse på udviklingen af ??dinosaurerne i nutidens fugle.(ref.)
Professor Michael Benton, fra University of Bristol skole Geologisk Institut, sagde: "Denne undersøgelse betyder, at vi ikke kan se oprindelsen af ??fugle som en pludselig eller dramatisk begivenhed, med en dinosaur blive en powered flyer natten over. (ref.)

Et gen, der giver nutidens mennesker til at klare livet i stor højde var arvet fra en uddød art af menneskelig, har Nature tidsskrift rapporteret.(ref.)
Den variant af EPAS-1-genet, som påvirker blodets ilt, er almindelig i tibetanere – hvoraf mange bor i højder på 4.000 m hele året rundt.(ref.)
Men DNA-sekvensen svarer til en fundet i uddøde Denisova hominin mennesker. (ref.)
"> Other scientists are sceptical about the paper, which was published in PNAS. (ref.)
Både neandertalerne – der opstod ca. 400.000 år siden og boede i Europa og det vestlige Asien indtil 35000 år siden – og den gådefulde Denisovans bidrog DNA til nutidens mennesker.(ref.)
De Denisovans kendes kun fra DNA ekstraheret fra finger knogle af en pige udgravet på en hule i det centrale Sibirien. Dette 40.000-50.000 år gamle knogle fragment, såvel som en temmelig store tand fra et andet individ, er alle, der er kendt af denne art. (ref.)
Den lille "pinky" ben gav et helt genom sekvens, så forskerne at sammenligne det med DNA moderne mennesker for bedre at forstå arven fra det gamle krydsning. (ref.)
Nu har forskere knyttet en usædvanlig variant af EPAS1 genet, som er involveret i regulering af kroppens produktion af hæmoglobin – molekylet, der transporterer ilt i blodet – til Denisovans. Når kroppen udsættes for lavt iltindhold stødt ved høje højder, EPAS1 fortæller andre gener i kroppen til at blive aktiv, stimulere en reaktion, der omfatter produktion af ekstra røde blodlegemer. (ref.)
Den usædvanlige variant udbredt blandt tibetanere formentlig spredes gennem naturlig udvælgelse efter deres forfædre flyttede ind på højtliggende plateau i Asien flere tusinde år siden. (ref.)
Vi har meget klare beviser for, at denne version af genet kom fra Denisovans, sagde hovedforfatter medforfatter Rasmus Nielsen, fra University of California, Berkeley. (ref.)
Denisova hominin finger knogle (ref.)
En lille finger knogle tilvejebragt en DNA-sekvens for en ny art af høj kvalitet – de Denisovans (ref.)
Han fortalte BBC News: ". Hvis du og jeg gå op til stor højde, vil vi straks have forskellige negative fysiologiske virkninger Vi vil være forpustet, kan vi lider højdesyge. (ref.)
Efter et lille stykke tid, vil vi forsøge at kompensere for dette ved at producere flere røde blodlegemer, men fordi vi ikke er tilpasset den stor højde miljø, ville vores svar være utilpasset -. Vi ville producere for mange røde blodlegemer kr. ££ NYLINIEThe blod bliver for tyk og hæver vores blodtryk, hvilket placerer os i risiko for slagtilfælde og præeklampsi (gravide). " (ref.)
Men tibetanere er beskyttet mod disse risici ved at producere færre røde blodlegemer i stor højde. Dette holder deres blod fra fortykkelse.(ref.)
Den tibetanske variant af EPAS1 blev opdaget af professor Nielsens hold i 2010. Men forskerne kunne ikke forklare, hvorfor det var så forskellige fra DNA-sekvenser findes i alle andre mennesker i dag, så de så mere antikke genom sekvenser for et svar. (ref.)
Vi sammenlignet det med neandertalerne, men vi kunne ikke finde et match. Så vi sammenlignet det med Denisovans og til vores overraskelse var der en næsten eksakt match, forklarede han. (ref.)
Han siger, at krydsning begivenhed med Denisovans formentlig skete meget længe siden. (ref.)
"> The male hunter is one of the earliest modern humans discovered in Eurasia. (ref.)
Derefter, når forfædrene til tibetanernes flyttede til store højder, er det begunstigede denne genetiske variant, som derefter bredte sig til det punkt, hvor de fleste tibetanere bære det i dag. (ref.)
"> This raises the possibility that the very first species of the human line separated from apes 10 or 11 million years ago – rather than the five or six million years ago that genetic evidence had previously suggested. (ref.)
Prof Nielsen sagde, at det var en eksempel på mennesker tilpasning til nye miljøer gennem gener erhvervet via krydsning med andre menneskelige arter "klar og direkte". (ref.)
"> People who use these products should ensure that they are CE marked and remember that no test is 100% reliable so think carefully before using personal genome services.£££NYLINIE£££NYLINIEIf after using the service, you have any questions or concerns you should speak to your healthcare professional.""""""" Tidligere forskning har vist, at gamle mennesker indførte gener, der kan hjælpe os til at klare virus uden for Afrika. (ref.)
Og en undersøgelse af eurasiske populationer viste, at Neanderthal DNA overrepræsenteret i dele af involveret i at gøre hud, hår og negle genom – vink måske på noget fordelagtigt, tilladt Homo sapiens til at tilpasse sig forholdene i Eurasien. (ref.)
De fandt, at hundreder af gener involveret i timingen af ??puberteten. (ref.)
Ved at studere genetiske faktorer vi håber at bedre at forstå hvordan puberteten timing i piger er knyttet til vigtige sundhedsmæssige forhold hos kvinder (ref.)
Dr. Joanne Murabito (ref.)
"> What happens to the data gathered by 23andMe also concerns some people. It's not entirely clear what their business plan is – whether they want to make money by selling kits to consumers, or whether they want to make most of their money by selling consumer data to other companies,"" Prof Greely told BBC News." Boston University School of Medicine(ref.)
Usædvanligt, blev en piges første periode også påvirket af prægede gener – en sjælden begivenhed, hvor gener fra enten moderen til faderen er tavshed. (ref.)
Vores resultater indebærer, at i en familie, kan den ene forælder mere dybt påvirke puberteten timing i deres døtre end den anden forælder, siger ledende forsker Dr. John Perry fra University of Cambridge. (ref.)
De fleste piger starter deres perioder i alderen 10 og 15, med en gennemsnitsalder på 12-13, efter beviser fra UK Biobank. (ref.)
"> A Californian start-up will be allowed to advertise a mail order DNA test that screens for a rare genetic condition, after a U-turn by the US regulator. (ref.)
Faktorer som barndommen body mass index (BMI) og motion har også været forbundet med puberteten. (ref.)

DNA-analyse af en 45.000 år gammel menneske har hjulpet forskerne lokalisere, når vores forfædre krydset med neandertalere. (ref.)
Tidlig europæiske (billede) (ref.)
Universal menneske: Denne rekonstruktion er en anden moderne menneske fra Rumænien 43000 år siden. Men det giver nogle fingerpeg om, hvad den sibiriske menneske kan have set ud. Denne population var ikke længe ud af Afrika og genetisk midt mellem europæere og asiater (ref.)
Genomet sekvens fra en overlårbenet fundet i Sibirien viser den første episode af blanding forekom mellem 50.000 og 60 tusind år siden.(ref.)
Den mandlige jæger er en af ??de tidligste moderne mennesker opdaget i Eurasien. (ref.)
"> Catching up (ref.)
Analysen rejser muligheden for, at den menneskelige linje først opstod millioner af år tidligere end de nuværende estimater. (ref.)
"> In October 1991, three protestors sought to prevent spent fuel rods from Germany from reaching Dounreay by road. (ref.)
Vores analyse viser, at moderne mennesker allerede havde krydset med neandertalerne så, og vi kan bestemme, hvornår der først skete langt mere præcist, end vi kunne før. (ref.)
"> It comes in the form of cylinders of uranium metal, about 150mm long and 35mm in diameter. (ref.)
Ved at ekstrapolere størrelsen af ??DNA-bidder baglæns, Prof Paabo og hans kolleger var i stand til at beregne, hvornår den første krydsning med neandertalerne opstod. Hans undersøgelse viser, at det var mellem 50.000 og 60 tusind år siden. (ref.)
Ifølge Prof Chris Stringer fra Natural History Museum i London, kunne denne tidlige krydsning angive, hvornår forfædrene til mennesker, der bor uden for Afrika i dag gjort deres første skridt ud af kontinentet, hvor vores arter udviklet sig mere end 150.000 år siden. (ref.)
Prof Stringer var blandt dem, der mente, at den første afkørsel fra moderne mennesker fra Afrika, der giver anledning til folk uden for Afrika i dag kunne være sket tidligere, muligvis for 100.000 år siden. Beviserne fra Prof Paabo forskning er at overbevise ham om, at det var nu meget senere. (ref.)
Rejser dette muligheden for, at de meget første stof af den humane linje adskilt fra aberne 10 eller 11 millioner år siden – i stedet for de fem eller seks millioner år siden, at den genetiske beviser har tidligere foreslået. (ref.)
"> A Neuron UCAV and Rafale fighter jet flying in formation (image) (ref.)
Vi advarer om, at (mutation) priserne kan have ændret sig over tid, og kan variere mellem befolkningsgrupper, sagde han. (ref.)

Hjernebølger fra humane deltagere aktiveret en lille lys, som var blevet implanteret i mus. (ref.)
Dette førte derefter aktiverede lysfølsomme gener, som var blevet gensplejset til at reagere på denne måde. (ref.)
"> (ref.)
De resulterende elektriske signaler blev derefter anvendt til at tændes den infrarøde LED lys, som aktiveres et gen. De resulterende proteiner kan derefter overvåges i blodet. (ref.)
Lysende gener (ref.)
I alle disse tre forskellige mentale tilstande, vi så meget specifikke hjerne aktiviteter, og disse blev oversat via LED til meget specifik belysning af de designer celler. Som svar disse (gener), der produceres proteiner, blev derefter cirkulerer i dyret, Prof Fussenegger forklaret.(ref.)
Selvom dette studie anvendt en simpel hjerne computer interface (BCI) enhed, har dette forskningsfelt været støt fremad. Udviklingen omfatter en tanke drevne fjernbetjening helikopter og lammede mennesker har brugt deres tanker til at drive en robotarm. (ref.)
Mus med en trådløs-drevne implantat (billede)(ref.)
"> Samples were collected from backstage at the Latitude Festival urinals to analyse drug use(ref.)
Tidligere undersøgelser har også vist, at gener kan udtrykkes ved hjælp af lys – en proces, der anvender optogenetics hvor celler eller gener er konstrueret til at reagere på lys. (ref.)
Den nye undersøgelse, den første til at flette disse to områder, der er publiceret i Nature Communications. (ref.)
Vi kan styre flere ting med tankerne, men der har aldrig været et link til molekylærbiologi gentranskription. Prof Fussenegger sagde.(ref.)
"> The Queen Elizabeth Prize, designed to become a Nobel"" for engineering, was set up with cross-party backing and industry support to celebrate innovators with global impact." I en kommentar til undersøgelsen Prof Geraint Rees fra University College London Institute of Neuroscience, sagde forskning viste en interessant måde at udløse genaktivering men tilføjede, at det var uklart, hvor nyttig den teknologi kunne være, især fordi "optogenetics er helt begrænset til forsøgsdyr" . (ref.)

Forskere har gennemført en omfattende undersøgelse af den genetiske mangfoldighed i Afrika syd for Sahara. (ref.)
Den afrikanske Genome Variation Project analyseret DNA 1.800 mennesker, der bor over hele kontinentet. (ref.)
Indtil nu har de fleste undersøgelser undersøger genetiske risikofaktorer for sygdom med fokus på Europa. Der er ikke kendt om Afrika, mest genetisk afvigende region i verden.(ref.)
For at finde ud af mere, et hold af Afrika, britiske og amerikanske forskere indsamlet genetisk materiale fra 1.800 personer i Afrika syd for Sahara, herunder 320 hele genom-sekvenser. (ref.)
For eksempel folk fra Sydafrika er mindre tilbøjelige til at bære en genetisk mutation, der giver beskyttelse mod malaria end dem fra andre dele Afrika. (ref.)
Og globalt, afrikanere er mere tilbøjelige til at have en større risiko for forhøjet blodtryk end europæerne. (ref.)
Men forskerne fandt også, at der var flere genetiske ligheder på tværs af Afrika, end de havde troet. (ref.)
Dr. Sandhu sagde: "Mangfoldigheden blandt befolkninger ikke er så forskellige som vi forventes at være Det er godt, fordi det betyder, at vi nu kan designe stor skala forsøg for at forstå sygdomme modtagelighed.. (ref.)
Forskerne fandt, at mange afrikanere har nogle eurasiske DNA i deres genetiske afstamning, hvilket tyder på, at Eurasians migreret tilbage i Afrika mange tusinde år efter, at de første venstre. (ref.)
"> The Hollywood film maker Cameron visited its lowest point, Challenger Deep, in 2012. Cameron's submarine mission cost millions of dollars and he reported seeing little in the way of interesting creatures. Alan Jamieson's new video images came at much cheaper price. (ref.)

Prof David Reich og kolleger udvundet DNA fra resterne findes på arkæologiske udgravninger rundt om kontinentet. De brugte en ny DNA-berigelse teknik, der i høj grad reducerer mængden af ??sekvensering nødvendig for at opnå genom-dækkende data. (ref.)
"> WHO workers in protective gear(image)(ref.)
Bønderne var forskellige fra de indfødte jæger-samlere, de stødte på, da de spredes rundt om kontinentet. Til sidst, de to grupper blandet, så vi ved 5.000-6.000 år siden, havde landmændenes genetiske signatur bliver melded med den for de indfødte europæere. (ref.)
Men tidligere undersøgelser viser, at en to-vejs amalgam af landmænd og jægere er ikke tilstrækkeligt til at fange den genetiske kompleksitet moderne europæere. En tredje nedarvede gruppe skal være sat til smeltedigel for nylig. (ref.)
Prof Reich og kolleger har nu identificeret en sandsynlig kilde område for dette senere diaspora. Bronzealderen Yamnaya kvægavlere i det sydlige Rusland er et godt match for den manglende tredje genetisk komponent i europæere. (ref.)
"> The World Health Organization (WHO) said 50 new cases of the deadly disease had also been reported. (ref.)
"> Supportive care such as rehydrating patients who have diarrhoea and vomiting can help recovery (ref.)
Salzmuende begravelse (billede) (ref.)
Ved 5.000-6.000 år siden, europæerne var en to-vejs blanding af indfødte jægere og i nærheden af ??Eastern landmænd (ref.)
Endnu mere interessant er den mulige forbindelse mellem denne steppe ekspansion og oprindelsen af ??indoeuropæiske sprog. (ref.)
De fleste indfødte europæiske tungemål fra engelsk til russisk og spansk til græsk, tilhører den indoeuropæiske gruppe. Klassificeringen er baseret på fælles funktioner i ordforråd og grammatik. (ref.)
"> Many in Liberia say the government's response to the crisis has been inadequate(ref.)
To vigtigste hypoteser er blevet fremsat for at forklare overvægten af ??indoeuropæiske tunger i Europa i dag. (ref.)

Dormice brug lur-lignende anfald af sløvhed at spare energi, når der foreligger mindre mad(ref.)
Forskere i Wien fandt, at når mindre mad var til rådighed, have dormice brugt en kort søvn-lignende tilstand kaldet sløvhed at spare energi.(ref.)
"> But experts warn ultimately the only way to be sure a drug or vaccine is effective is to see if it works in countries affected by Ebola. (ref.)
Mens de er i denne tilstand, bremser deres stofskifte og deres kropstemperatur er reduceret, hvilket sparer energi. Dette gør det muligt for dyrene at lagre mere kropsfedt, som er afgørende for deres vinter overlevelse. (ref.)

Mere end 450 geoglyphs er nu blevet identificeret i ryddede områder (ref.)
"> The WHO's country director for Kenya, Custodia Mandlhate, said the East African state was classified in group two; at high risk of transmission""." Forskerne er at scanne Amazonas skov i Brasilien for at lede efter tegn på besættelse af gamle civilisationer. (ref.)
"> Dr Gregory Taylor, deputy head of Canada's Public Health Agency, said he saw the vaccines as a global resource""." En drone vil blive sendt op med en laser instrument til at peer gennem baldakin for jordarbejder, der blev bygget tusinder af år siden. (ref.)
"> Incubation period is two to 21 days (ref.)
Dette køretøj er LIDAR instrument bør afsløre, hvor mange flere geoglyphs forbliver skjult under stadig overdækkede områder i Amazonas. (ref.)
Mens nogle af lyset fra lidar scatters tilbage fra bladene, nogle er i stand til at trænge igennem til jorden. (ref.)
En smart algoritme kan derefter anvendes til at adskille de to signaler, digitalt fjerne træerne for at eksponere noget usædvanligt nedenunder.(ref.)
Hvis kandidat geoglyphs bekræftes i opfølgende inspektioner, ville forskerne derefter flytte på at karakterisere signatur ændringer, der er blevet efterladt i jorden og vegetationen af ??de gamle indbyggere. (ref.)
Disse "fingeraftryk" kunne så søges i satellitbilleder, der muliggør en langt bredere svøbe af Amazonia at probes end det er muligt med blot en lille ubemandet. Argumenterne over omfanget af besættelsen og dens konsekvenser skal derefter afgøres. (ref.)

Forskere har skabt en drone med flagrende vinger, der kan foldes ind og rebound efter en mid-air kollision. (ref.)
Ved at kopiere fløj anatomi fugle og flagermus, forskerne udviklet en mekanisme til at tillade, at deres flyvende robot til at klemme mellem forhindringer og komme sig efter virkningerne.(ref.)
Detaljer er offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Bioinspiration og Biomimetik. (ref.)
Vingerne er baseret på evnen af ??fugle og flagermus til at putte deres vinger lukke ind i deres kroppe. (ref.)
"> By James Gallagher (ref.)
Dens bat-lignende design gør det muligt at folde ind og derefter inddrive, helt passivt – uden behov for nogen anden del af robotten til at udløse foldningsprocessen. (ref.)
Vingerne er fastgjort til drone krop med et 3D-trykt håndleddet, som også blev baseret på animalsk anatomi. Det er hængslet på en sådan måde, at resten af ??vingen foldes og udfoldes frit. (ref.)
Så så snart vingen foldes langs designet origami-lignende fold linje, det er tvunget udad af de centrifugale kræfter igen og udfolder sig automatisk. (ref.)

Antibiotika skal bruges af folk med relevant uddannelse på risikoen, Dr. Bernard Vallat fortalte BBC News. (ref.)
Hvis de cirkulerer ligesom … mad eller slik, kan det være en i risikogruppen praksis. (ref.)
Omfanget af truslen fra både mennesker og dyr blev understreget på dette møde ved generaldirektør for Verdenssundhedsorganisationen (WHO), Dr. Margaret Chan, der advarede om, at verden var på vej til en "post-biotiske" æra. (ref.)
"> 8 Nigeria (ref.)

Havforskere er meget tilfredse med den nyeste video-optagelser af liv og død fra den dybeste, mest mystiske region af havet. (ref.)
Man har beskrevet det som den bedste de endnu har samlet. (ref.)
En dyb hav sonde skudt videoerne i april og maj under en ekspedition, der loddet de 10.000 dybder af Kermadec Trench, nordøst for New Zealand. (ref.)
Billederne afslører jagt strategi en stor gådefulde fisk, svømning stil med en gigantisk deep sea krebsdyr og nye oplysninger om aktiviteterne i verdens dybeste levende fisk.(ref.)
"> Ebola treatment facilities in Liberia are overflowing with patients, the WHO says (ref.)
Oceanografer kalder det hadal zone. På sit laveste punkt, trykket når et ton per kvadratcentimeter, og temperaturen falder til én grad C. (ref.)
Ifølge Andy Bowen, maskinchef på Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) i USA: "The hadal zone … repræsenterer en noget svarer til Nordamerika område Så det er en væsentlig del af havet, der i det væsentlige er uudforsket.".(ref.)
"> Three countries – Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia – are at the heart of the Ebola outbreak, but Liberia is suffering the most by far. Why this is the case is not completely understood. Finding the answer will be a critical part of tackling the outbreak. (ref.)
"> It contains only a small portion of genetic material from the virus, so it cannot cause the disease. (ref.)
Ved overfladen, forbindelsen mellem dem er trench – et bredt V-formet funktion, som kan køre tusindvis af kilometer i længde. Den dybeste er Marianergraven med et gulv så dybt som 11.000 meter ved ét sted. (ref.)
"> Skills shortage: (ref.)
Deep bolig brosme ål vokser op til 1m i længden(ref.)
Den brosme ål holder sin holdning ved agn og venter lugten af ??døde fisk til at tiltrække krebsdyr kaldet tanglopper. Amphipoder er den mest rigelige af frit-svømning skabninger i de dybeste dybder. Dr. Jamieson theorises at brosme ål kun foråret i aktion, når amphipoder store nok til at genere med svømmer tæt. Når fisken eller anden måde registrerer deres nærhed, munden springer på vid gab på et splitsekund, suger op amphipoden i et kapløb med vand. (ref.)
Havbiologer spekulere at supergiants udviklet gigantisk størrelse som et forsvar mod prædation. På et tidspunkt i fortiden, deres forfædre havde held til at udvikle mutationer i gener, der regulerer væksten. (ref.)
En anden tilpasning til dette miljø er fødevarebutikker i deres krop, i henhold til marinbiolog Ashley Rowden på New Zealands National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Han sagde, at supergiants, som er blevet bragt til overfladen føler som om de er lavet af voks. (ref.)
Troen er, at de voksagtige materialer er et lager kilde mad til tidspunkter, hvor der ikke er mad for de supergiants at eksistere på. De er i stand til at bruge det, de har gemt fra en tidligere stor fest. (ref.)

I en bevægelse, der bringer tættere en ny æra af dybe hav minedrift, har FNs Internationale Havbundsmyndighed (ISA) udstedt syv nye efterforskningslicenser. (ref.)
Statsejede og private virksomheder fra Indien, Brasilien, Singapore og Rusland er blandt dem til jord tilladelse til mineraler efterforskning.(ref.)
"> The nurse had treated two Spanish missionaries who died of the disease after being flown home from the region. (ref.)
Det betyder, at det samlede areal af havbunden nu licens i denne nye guldfeber har nået en enorm 1,2 millioner kvadratkilometer under 26 forskellige tilladelser til mineraler efterforskning.(ref.)
"> The hospital was reported to have had extreme protective measures in place including two sets of overalls, gloves and goggles. (ref.)
"> Incubation period is two to 21 days (ref.)
ISA blev oprettet for at styre udnyttelsen af ??havbunden ud over territoriale grænser for at forhindre en gratis-for-alle, og har indtil videre kun udstedt licenser til efterforskning. De første tilladelser til udnyttelse kunne komme i de næste par år. (ref.)
Knuder (billede) (ref.)
"> Our people dying' (ref.)
"> Scrubs (ref.)
Stadig skal forhandles, er de betingelser og regler for faktiske minedrift. (ref.)
En protokol til at minimere miljøbelastningen er stadig under udarbejdelse. Og nærmere bestemmelser for royalties, der skal betales til at udvikle og indlandsstater er endnu ikke afgjort – et grundlæggende princip for ISA er, at havbunden rigdomme bør deles globalt. (ref.)
To af de nye licenser – for tyske og indiske organisationer – dækker dybe ocean kamme hvor hydrotermiske væld har skabt potentielt rige forekomster. (ref.)
Dr. Jon Copley fra University of Southampton, en havbiolog, har overvåget udviklingen af ??dybe hav minedrift midt bekymringer om dens mulige virkninger på den naturlige verden. (ref.)
I alt omkring 6.000 km medio ocean højderyg i internationalt farvand er nu undersøgt for potentielle havbunden minedrift I alt omkring 7,5% af det globale midt-ocean højderyg -. Den geologiske rygraden i vores planet – er nu ved at blive undersøgt for dens mineralske rigdom.
Ridges er en af ??de tre dybhavsarter miljøer, hvor der er mineralforekomster tiltrække interesse, i dette tilfælde for metalmalme, der danner på dybhavsarter udluftninger langs kamme. (ref.)
Men disse ventilationsåbninger er også hjemsted for kolonier af visse arter, der ikke findes i andre dybe hav miljøer, som kan gøre dem modtagelige for miljøpåvirkninger fra minedrift. (ref.)
UK havbunden Resources (UKSRL) gennemført en baseline miljøundersøgelse af sin licens område i Stillehavet i oktober sidste år. (ref.)
Bulk cutter (billede) (ref.)
Opførelse af en havbunden minedrift maskine blev afsluttet i UK (ref.)
"> Once these questions have been answered, the WHO hopes to extend the trials to a much wider group of people and start giving it to Africa. (ref.)
Duncan Cunningham af UKSRL sagde, at selskabet stadig var "forpligtet til miljøansvarlig, gennemsigtige og kommercielt sund udvikling af området". (ref.)
Han tilføjede: "Vi var meget glade for at have haft lejlighed til at præsentere detaljerne i vores første miljømæssige baseline krydstogt til ISA og andre interessenter." (ref.)
Den første havbund minen vil sandsynligvis være i farvandene ud Papua Ny Guinea. I en aftale anbragt uden for ISA-systemet, et canadisk selskab, Nautilus Mineraler, planer om at udvinde metaller fra et felt af hydrotermiske væld. (ref.)
Projektet blev forsinket i år ved en tvist med PNG regering, men vilkårene er nu afsluttet, og enorme robot minedrift maskiner er ved at blive bygget. (ref.)

En social spider arter, Anelosimus studiosus (billede) (ref.)
Personlighed spiller en lignende rolle i sociale spider samfund til fysiske kaster i andre sociale arter (ref.)
Når edderkopper blev gjort til at leve uden for en koloni, aggressive kvinder var mere effektiv til at opfange bytte, bygget bedre webs og var mere tilbøjelige til at angribe og frastøde indtrængere end føjelige individer. (ref.)
"> Geneticist (ref.)
Hr Wright sagde: "Vi blev overraskede over hvordan fattige forældre aggressive edderkopper var Det viser sig, at de er så aggressive, at de selv vil handle aggressivt mod deres eget afkom, dræbte mange i loven.".(ref.)
Men efter at have begge personligheder til stede, er nøglen til en koloni succes. (ref.)

Fiskene var ofte meget større end edderkopper, der fangede dem (ref.)
Forskere har opdaget, at en række spider arter fange og spise fisk. (ref.)
"> Yet, researchers have been privately complaining for months about the scarcity of genetic information about the virus that is entering the public domain. (ref.)
I nogle tilfælde spindlere anvendte kraftige giftstoffer til at dræbe fisk, der var meget større end dem. (ref.)
Nogle er i stand til svømning, dykning og vandreture på vandoverfladen. Men de har generelt stærke nervegifte og enzymer, så de kan dræbe og fordøje fisk, er større og tungere end dem. (ref.)
"> See naked mole rats work in teams (ref.)
Fisk kan være lejlighedsvis bytte for edderkopper, som bor i nærheden af ??vand(ref.)
Fisk fanget af edderkopper var i gennemsnit ca. dobbelt så længe som deres arachnid rovdyr.(ref.)
"> Fish eating by spiders has been reported from all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Most incidents have been documented in North America, especially in the wetlands of Florida.

Højere temperatur er forbundet med forøget vækst og størrelse i hvirvelløse dyr.
Urban belysning kan også være en medvirkende faktor, da det tiltrækker insekter og betyder mere mad til edderkopper i disse miljøer. Denne stigning i bytte ville resultere i større, tungere, mere frugtbare edderkopper. " (ref.)
Miss Lowe sagde mere forskning er nødvendig for at afgøre, hvilken en er ansvarlig for ændringer i størrelse. (ref.)
Det faktum, at nogle edderkopper gavn af urbanisering er en god ting, tilføjede hun. (ref.)
"> The effective period of an electrified fence is 10-12 years, by which time the palmyra trees would have grown sufficiently, providing an effective, sustainable barrier blocking the elephants from entering human settlement areas, he told the BBC.

Ved at kopiere udformningen af ??et organ fundet i edderkopper ben, har ingeniører i Sydkorea bygget en sensor, der kan registrere minimal vibrationer. (ref.)
Det virker, fordi vibrationerne åbne og nære revner i et meget tyndt lag af platin, ændre sin ledningsevne. (ref.)
Den beskrev, hvordan en bestemt art af vandre edderkop kommunikerer med potentielle hjælpere, meter væk på den samme plante, ved at skrabe blade og "høre" vibrationerne. (ref.)
Orglet i edderkopper ben, der registrerer disse utroligt svage vibrationer består af en række slidser. Det kaldes "lyriform organ", fordi slidserne varierer i længde, ligesom strenge af en lyre. (ref.)
Vi forsøgte at efterligne den krakkede form af orglet, sagde professor Choi. (ref.)
For at gøre dette, placeres de et meget tyndt lag af metallet platin på toppen af ??en fleksibel polymer, og bøjede det. (ref.)
De måtte bruge den helt rigtige tykkelse af platin, og bøje det i den helt rigtige måde, for at få et mønster af parallelle revner, der ville fungere som en vibration sensor. (ref.)
I første omgang mislykkedes vi mange gange, sagde professor Choi. (ref.)
Det tog flere måneder … men til sidst vi arbejdede ud af, hvor ultra-høj følsomhed kunne være afledt af en kontrolleret revnedannelse. (ref.)
mariehøne på sensoren (billede) (ref.)
Sensoren har registreret den simulerede flagren af ??en ladybird vinger (ref.)
Når de anvendes elektricitet til platin lag, fandt de kunne læse ud frekvensen og størrelsen af ??vibrationer de leveres til sensoren, fordi revnerne var at ændre metallets modstand, da de åbnes og lukkes. (ref.)
Afgørende, kanterne af revner i platin var temmelig ru, danner takkede linjer, når den ses gennem et mikroskop. Hvis de var helt lige, ville alle de nuværende stopper straks og sensoren ville simpelthen være "on" eller "off". (ref.)
Men med deres lidt takkede kanter, revnerne blev meget følsom, hvilket tillader forskellige niveauer af strøm at passere igennem som polymeren under bøjet med vibrationerne. (ref.)
sensorer på plads på violin og menneskehud (billeder) (ref.)
Holdets spider-inspirerede design kunne optage noter fra en violin – eller en persons tale og puls(ref.)
For at teste det yderligere, forskerne simulerede de små vibrationer af en ladybird vinger – en blid vrikke på kun 14 mikrometer (0.014mm). Deres sensor var op til opgaven.(ref.)
Når de placeret den på en violin, kunne sensoren skelne mellem de forskellige toner, der afspilles. Det kunne også læse ud et emne puls, hvis spændt fast til deres håndled, og endog tilladt holdet til at fortælle forskellen mellem det talte ord, når det blev placeret på en eller andens hals. (ref.)
Når du taler, hvis du rører din nakke – det vibrerende. Vores sensor er i stand til at detektere vibrationer som dette, meget præcist, Prof Choi forklaret. (ref.)
Holdet har patenteret deres design og arbejder på at forbedre den yderligere – især, hvilket gør det mere holdbart og bruge billigere metaller end platin. (ref.)

Forfædrene til nutidens Inuit gjort skarpe værktøjer hovedsageligt ved slibning skifer, i modsætning til de flager sten anvendes af Paleo-eskimoer (ref.)
DNA-sekvenser fra levende og gamle indbyggere viser en enkelt tilstrømning fra Sibirien produceret alle de "Paleo-eskimoiske" kulturer, der døde ud 700 år siden. (ref.)
Forskere nordamerikanske forhistorie har længe uenige om slægter af arktiske folkeslag, lige fra de første modtagelser, der for det meste jages okse og rensdyr, gennem mindst fire andre kulturelle grupperinger, til den moderne inuit og deres marine jagt kultur. (ref.)
Siden 1920'erne eller deromkring, har det været stærkt diskuteret, hvad er forholdet mellem disse kulturelle grupper, siger ledende forfatter Prof Eske Willerslev fra Statens Naturhistoriske Museum Danmark, som er en del af Københavns Universitet. (ref.)
Er blevet foreslået alle mulige hypoteser. Alt fra fuldstændig kontinuitet mellem de første mennesker i Arktis til at præsentere dages inuitter, [mens] andre forskere har hævdet, at Saqqaq og Dorset og Thule er adskilte mennesker. (ref.)
Disse tre bredt grupperede kulturer alle besatte den nordlige del af Nordamerika: Saqqaq indtil 2500 år siden, efterfulgt af en række af Dorset kulturer, og derefter Thule (Inuit forfædre) fra omkring 1.000 år siden. (ref.)
indsamling af prøver (billede) (ref.)
Undersøgelsen omfattede fortidsminder indsamlet fra hele det nordamerikanske Arktis, herunder Grønland (ref.)
Ved hjælp af DNA fra mere end 150 gamle menneskelige rester, viste forskerne, at alle Saqqaq og Dorset folk, yderligere bundtet sammen som Paleo-eskimoerne, udgør en enkelt genetisk afstamning. De har alle stammer fra en migrering tværs Beringstrædet fra Sibirien, der begyndte omkring 6.000 år siden.(ref.)
En enkelt stiftende befolkning afgjort, og udholdt de barske miljøforhold i Arktis, for næsten 5.000 år – i hvilket tidsrum kultur og livsstil ændret nok til at blive repræsenteret som distinkte kulturelle enheder, forklarede Dr. Maanasa Raghavan, første forfatter af nyt papir. (ref.)
Resultaterne bekræfter også, at før Paleo-eskimoiske kultur pludselig forsvandt omkring 700 år siden, var der ingen sammenblanding mellem disse samfund og Inuit forfædre, der følger af en anden, distinkt sibiriske migration.(ref.)
Carbon dating antyder, at de kan have overlappet i Grønland og det nordlige Canada i op til flere århundreder, men kulturelle rester ikke forråder nogen interaktion: Den Paleo-eskimoerne fortsatte med at bruge flager stenredskaber, for eksempel, mens Thule brugte jorden skifer. (ref.)
Manglen på genetisk cross-over kan indikere, at de tidligere beboere uddøde før Thule ankom; det også "rejser spørgsmålet", ifølge Prof William Fitzhugh, en anden forfatter af undersøgelsen, på en mulig "forhistorisk folkemord". (ref.)
Og alligevel Inuit legende antyder kun venskabelige forbindelser mellem deres Thule forfædre og de "blide giganter", som gik forud dem. (ref.)
Prof Fitzhugh understregede han kun spekulere: ". Vi har ikke nogen god dokumentation for, at der var fjendtlighed mellem Dorset folk og Thule folk" (ref.)
Der er meget mere at finde ud af, sagde han, der beskriver det nye arbejde som "en åbning kapitel i den genetiske historie New World Arktis". (ref.)
Samlet set resultaterne tilføje en "fjerde bølge" til eksisterende modeller af Arctic bosættelse i den nye verden, ved at bekræfte, at alle Paleo-eskimoerne opstod fra en tydelig, tidlig migration. (ref.)
Efter at have sammenlignet gamle prøver med genomer fra levende mennesker, konkluderede forskerne, at efterfølgende, separate bølger gav anledning til Thule mennesker (og deres efterkommere i Inuit) samt to forskellige grupper af indfødte amerikanere længere sydpå.(ref.)
Inuit (billede) (ref.)
Nutidens Inuit folk opstået en tydelig bølge af indvandring begynder omkring 1.000 år siden(ref.)
"> The Nepali government is seeking to improve safety at the start of the 2015 spring climbing season.

Den moderne europæiske genpulje blev dannet, da tre gamle bestande blandet inden for de sidste 7000 år, rapporterer Nature journal.(ref.)
"> (ref.)
Men en anden, mystisk befolkning med sibiriske tilhørsforhold også bidraget til den genetiske landskab af kontinentet. (ref.)
Resultaterne er baseret på en analyse af genomer fra ni gamle europæere. (ref.)
Landbruget opstod i Mellemøsten – i det moderne Syrien, Irak og Israel – før udvide til Europa omkring 7500 år siden. (ref.)
Det gør virkelig ligne de indfødte vesteuropæiske jæger samlere havde denne slående kombination af mørk hud og blå øjne, der ikke findes nogen mere (ref.)
I det nye papir, Prof David Reich fra Harvard Medical School og kolleger studeret genomer af syv jæger-samlere fra Skandinavien, en jæger hvis rester blev fundet i en hule i Luxembourg og en tidlig landmand fra Stuttgart, Tyskland.(ref.)
Kort (billede) (ref.)
Jægerne ankom i Europa tusinder af år før indførelsen af ??landbruget, hunkered ned i det sydlige tilflugtssteder under istiden og derefter udvidet i en periode kaldet mesolitisk efter iskapperne havde trukket sig tilbage fra det centrale og nordlige Europa. (ref.)
"> The grave was one of four adult female burials in an enclosure dating to the third century BC that were discovered during the construction of a housing development in the Champagne-Ardenne region. (ref.)
"> By Rebecca Morelle (ref.)
Der er en evolutionær argument om dette – det lys hud i Europa er biologisk fordelagtig for folk, der gård, fordi du nødt til at gøre D-vitamin, siger David Reich. (ref.)
Jægere og samlere får D-vitamin gennem deres mad – fordi dyr har en masse af det. Men når du er landbrug, får du ikke en masse af det, og når du skifter til landbruget, er der en stærk naturlig selektion at lysne din hud, så når den er ramt af sollys kan du syntetisere D-vitamin(ref.)
Denne ekstra "stamme" er den mest gådefulde og overraskende, er relateret til indfødte amerikanere. (ref.)
Antydninger af denne gruppe dukket op i en analyse af de europæiske genomer to år siden. Døbt Gamle North Eurasians denne gruppe forblev et "ghost befolkning", indtil 2013, hvor forskerne offentliggjorde genomet i en 24.000-årig dreng begravet i nærheden af ??Lake Baikal i Sibirien. (ref.)
Denne person havde genetiske ligheder med både europæere og indfødte amerikanere, hvilket tyder på at han var en del af en befolkning, der har bidraget til bevægelser i den nye verden 15000 år siden og Europa på et senere tidspunkt. (ref.)
Den gamle jæger fra Luxembourg og landmanden fra Tyskland viser ingen tegn på blandingen fra denne population, hvilket indebærer denne tredje forfader blev tilføjet til det kontinentale mix efter landbruget allerede var etableret i Europa. (ref.)
Undersøgelsen viste også, at de tidlige landmænd og deres europæiske efterkommere kan spore en stor del af deres afstamning til en hidtil ukendt, endnu ældre afstamning kaldet Basal Eurasians. Denne gruppe udgør den tidligst kendte befolkning divergens blandt mennesker, der forlod Afrika 60000 år siden.(ref.)

Europa blev først afgjort omkring 40.000 år siden i en tid kendt som den øvre palæolitiske.(ref.)
"> Lead scientist, Dr Trevor Hamilton, said: There are many anecdotes about how smart these fish are. Some people even believe that their cichlids watch television with them.""" Men forholdene gradvist forværret indtil isdækkede meget af den europæiske landmasse og nåede et højdepunkt 27000 år siden. (ref.)
"> Its statistics are used by the European Commission to set fish quotas. (ref.)

Der har været megen debat om, hvorfor dyrene tog så lang tid at udvikle sig og trives på Jorden. (ref.)
Nu forskerne siger, at det var på grund af utroligt lave niveauer af ilt på Jorden mere end en milliard år siden. (ref.)
Et hold bestemmes den kemiske sammensætning af gamle sten at finde der var omkring 0,1% af iltindholdet tilstedeværende sammenlignet med i dag. (ref.)
Forskerne præsenterer deres arbejde i Science tidsskrift. (ref.)
"> Video (ref.)
For en milliard år før, at i en æra kaldet midten proterozoiske, selvom livet var til stede den bestod af meget enkle organismer. (ref.)
Disse væsener var i stand til at overleve på meget lave niveauer af ilt, men mere komplekse liv ikke kunne. (ref.)
Tanken om, at ilt var alt for lav for dyr at udvikle sig før denne periode havde været rundt i lang tid, forklarede en af ??de ledende forfattere af undersøgelsen, Noah Planavsky af Yale Universitets Institut for Geologi og Geofysik. (ref.)
Holdet analyserede chrom niveauer – et geokemisk signatur – af rock sedimenter fra Australien, Canada, Kina og USA. Dette tillod dem at forstå, hvor meget ilt ville have været til stede. (ref.)
De fandt en ændring i de kemiske komponenter af klipperne opstod omkring 800 millioner år siden, en periode, hvor iltindholdet begyndte at stige hurtigt, allerede dokumenteret af tidligere forskning. (ref.)

Dyrene i havet har været at få større i gennemsnit siden kambriske periode – og ikke tilfældigt. (ref.)
Det er konstateringen af ??en enorm ny undersøgelse af marine liv før og nu, offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Science. (ref.)
"> So are these fish evolving into the cleverest animals under water? (ref.)
I de seneste 542 millioner år, har den gennemsnitlige størrelse af en havdyr steget med en faktor 150. (ref.)
Målt i volumen, dagens mindste havet critter er mindre end 10 gange mindre end dens kambriske modstykke; begge er diminutive, sub-millimeter krebsdyr. Men i den anden ende af skalaen, den mægtige blå hval er mere end 100.000 gange på størrelse med de største dyr Kambrium kunne tilbyde: en trilobite mindre end en halv meter lang. (ref.)
19. århundrede palæontologer har bemærket, at de gamle forfædre moderne pattedyr ofte tendens til at være mindre; heste, for eksempel, kan spores til hunden størrelse Eohippus slægten på 50 millioner år siden. (ref.)
"> The dust contains the apatite (phosphorus) mineral. Phosphorus is a nutrient essential for photosynthesis. (ref.)
"> The bizarre-looking creature, which is new to science, was filmed 8,145m beneath the waves, beating the previous depth record by nearly 500m. (ref.)
Han fik hjælp fra kolleger, studerende og endda høje skole praktikanter, at gennemsøge videnskabelige rekord for kropsstørrelse data – herunder måling utallige illustrationer fra ærværdige palæontologiske Tomes. (ref.)
Vi har haft mindst 50 high school studerende, der arbejder på det i løbet af de sidste fem år, Dr. Heim fortalte BBC News. (ref.)
Det ville have taget mange, mange, mange flere år at gøre det på min egen! (ref.)
Til sidst holdet havde samlet oplysninger om mere end 17.000 grupper af arter, der kaldes slægter. Dette udgør over 60% af alle de dyr, slægter nogensinde har levet. (ref.)
Det var tilbagevenden pattedyr, trods alt, som i sidste ende producerede de moderne havets kæmper: hvaler. (ref.)
Du kan se i dataene, der er denne tendens til at øge størrelse – men en reel spark kommer, når du har disse luft-breathers igen går i vandet, Dr. Berenbrink fortalte BBC. (ref.)
Så har du en slags en trinvis ændring i størrelse. (ref.)
"> Anaesthetic was bubbled through the goldfish's water (ref.)
Dr. Heim enig i, at disse begivenheder er vigtige, men understreger den enorme mangfoldighed af andre livsformer – fisk, bløddyr og andre hvirvelløse dyr – der tilsammen fortsat på en bane for at udvide størrelse. (ref.)
De faktisk har en forholdsvis lille effekt på den gennemsnitlige størrelse. (ref.)

Ser actionfilm kan gøre dig mere tilbøjelige til at hobe sig på pounds, ifølge amerikanske forskere. (ref.)
Resultaterne, der er offentliggjort i JAMA Internal Medicine, viste folk snacked langt mere under actionfilm. (ref.)
Forskellen blev mere udtalt hos mænd end kvinder. (ref.)
"> The findings are reported in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (ref.)
Når rådgivning patienter, bør lægen understrege faren ved overspisning mens du ser tv.
[De] måske ønsker at advare især mod den potentielle effekt, meget distraherende indhold, såsom actionfilm, kan have på overspisning.(ref.)
Når du ser meget distraherende tv-indhold, kan det være bedst at undgå mellemmåltider. (ref.)

Krebsdyr kan være i stand til at opleve nogle følelser, en undersøgelse offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Science antyder. (ref.)
Forskere i Frankrig har fundet, at krebs synes at vise, angst, en følelse tidligere anset for at være for kompliceret for disse primitive dyr.(ref.)
Det følger en række undersøgelser, der tyder på, at krebsdyr også kan føle smerte. (ref.)
For at undersøge, forskerne udsatte krebsdyr til en stressende situation – i dette tilfælde en ubehagelig elektrisk felt. (ref.)
Skabninger blev derefter anbragt i en cross-formet tank. To af armene af korset var mørke – et miljø, som de fleste krebs foretrækker, mens to var lys. (ref.)
Krebs (ref.)
Dr. Cattaert sagde: "Når du har en naiv krebs (man ikke udsættes for det elektriske felt), du observere, at dyret vil gå i alle de arme, men med en lille præference for de mørke arme.(ref.)
Men når vi placerer en stresset dyr i labyrinten, observerer vi dyret aldrig går i lette våben.
"Pinning sammen hvad dyrene føler er den umulige ting"
Prof Bob Elwood, ££ kr NYLINIEQueen University Belfast
The lette våben opfattes som alt for truende. "" " (ref.)
Forskerne fandt, at krebs producerede høje niveauer af serotonin, et kemikalie, som er frigivet af hjernen at modvirke angst. (ref.)
De opdagede også, at når de injiceres de stressede væsner med en anti-angst medicin, de stoppede være så forsigtige og begyndte at udforske de lette våben i tanken. (ref.)
Den observerede adfærd var minder om angst adfærd, sagde Dr. Cattaert. (ref.)
Han sagde, at angst kunne have udviklet sig meget tidligere end hidtil antaget, og at det var en nyttig funktion for overlevelse. (ref.)
Hvis et dyr har udtrykt stress, efter dette, hvis dyret ikke ændrer på alle dens adfærd – det går på at udforske – så det kan støde et rovdyr, forklarede Dr. Cattaert. (ref.)
Men hvis krebs ændrer adfærd, så vil det undgå at blive i en situation, hvor faren kan forekomme. Selv om der ikke er nogen rovdyr, vil det blive at minimere denne trussel. (ref.)
Den omstændighed, at disse dyr kan få opsat tilføjer til en række undersøgelser, der tyder krebsdyr også føle smerte. (ref.)

Afrikanske cichlide fisk har en hukommelse span på op til tolv dage har en ny undersøgelse vist.(ref.)
Forskere uddannet fisken for at gå til den ene ende af en tank til fødevarer, før de derefter hvilede dem i 12 dage. (ref.)
Når fiskene blev returneret til tanken de tilbragte mere tid i det område, de er forbundet med at blive fodret, hvilket tyder på at de huskede deres uddannelse. (ref.)
Fisk, der husker, hvor maden er placeret har en evolutionær fordel i forhold dem, der ikke gør.(ref.)
Dr. Trevor Hamilton (ref.)
MacEwan University (ref.)
De fandt fiskene brugt mere tid nær til "op" ende af tanken i stedet for "ned" ende af tanken, hvilket tyder på, at de huskede associationen mellem herpå og fødevarer. (ref.)
Fiskene var også i stand til at huske placeringen af ??fødevarer, når de blev trænet til at forbinde det med den anden ende af tanken.(ref.)
Dr. Hamilton sagde: "Dette er meget spændende, fordi det viser, at denne art af cichlide kan danne en forstærkning-baserede forening og holde det i hukommelsen i lang tid.(ref.)
Desuden kan denne hukommelse spor blive glemt og erstattet af en ny langtidshukommelse. (ref.)
Cichlider har en varieret kost i naturen, spiser snegle, små fisk, insekter og planter og det menes de lærer at associere bestemte steder med deres livretter. En evne der kunne være afgørende for overlevelse. (ref.)
Fisk, der kan huske, hvor maden er placeret har en evolutionær fordel i forhold dem, der ikke gør, tilføjede Dr. Hamilton. (ref.)
Hvis de er i stand til at huske, at et bestemt område indeholder mad uden truslen om et rovdyr, vil de være i stand til at gå tilbage til dette område.
Decreases i tilgængeligheden af ??fødevarer ville fremme overlevelsen af ??arter, der kan huske det placering af fødekilder. " (ref.)
Forskerne ser nu på, om miljøforhold og medicin kan påvirke styrken af ??fisk minder.(ref.)

Vampyr flagermus 'strenge blod kost har gjort dem mister meget af deres evne til at smage bitre smag, har en undersøgelse fundet. (ref.)
Bitter smag fungerer som en naturlig forsvar mod at spise giftige fødevarer og blev anset for at være uundværlig i dyr. (ref.)
Forskere siger flagermusene 'speciel diæt og brug af lugt, ekkolokation og varme kunne have gjort smag mindre vigtig. (ref.)
Toksiner typisk smage bittert for dyr, men øresvin og har vist nogle hvaler at have reduceret bitter smag, sandsynligvis fordi de sluger deres mad hele, hvilket gør smag unødvendig. (ref.)
De fandt vampyr flagermus havde en højere procentdel af ikke-fungerende bitter smag receptor-gener (kaldet pseudogener) (47%) sammenlignet med ikke-vampyr flagermus (4,3%). Dette viste en stærkt reduceret bitter smag i vampyr flagermus. (ref.)
Vampyr flagermus blev fundet stadig har nogle velfungerende bitre smag receptorer, men forfatterne siger, disse er usandsynligt at spille en vigtig rolle i udvælgelsen af ??fødevarer og kan foreslå vampyr flagermus 'forfædre oprindeligt ikke foder på blod. (ref.)

Den nye undersøgelse viser, at flagermus kalibrere deres indbyggede magnetiske kompas bruger polariseret lys ved solnedgang (ref.)
Flagermus bruger mønster af polariseret lys på aftenhimlen at få deres lejer, ifølge en ny undersøgelse. (ref.)
Samt at have usædvanlige ekkolokation færdigheder og deres egen magnetiske kompas, flagermus er nu de første pattedyr, der vides at gøre brug af polariseret lys. (ref.)
Andre dyr med denne evne omfatter fugle, ansjoser og møg biller. (ref.)
For at finde ud af, om flagermus brugte dette mønster, forskerne sætte dem i kasser med en dejlig udsigt til solnedgangen, men kun gennem skræddersyede polariserende vinduer. Halvdelen af ??kasserne havde windows, genskabt det normale mønster, og halvdelen vendt det rundt 90 grader. (ref.)
Så tog de flagermusene omkring 20 km fra deres hjem roost i en bulgarsk hule, udgivet dem og sporede dem. Sikker nok, flagermusene fra kasserne med roterede vinduer var meget mere uberegnelige på vej mod hjemmet. (ref.)
Selvom masser af andre dyr, herunder nogle fugle, fisk, amfibier og insekter, er kendt for at detektere polariseret lys, kan den kun andre pattedyr, som vi kender opfatter det er faktisk mennesker. I visse situationer, som når lyset reflekteres glas eller vand ved bestemte vinkler, eller når vi ser på hvide områder på en LCD-skærm, nogle mennesker ser en sløret fænomen kendt som "Haidinger pensel" – produceret af polariseringen af ??lyset. (ref.)
Ifølge Dr. Marie Dacke, som studerer dyr vision ved Lunds Universitet i Sverige, hvordan dette sker, er stadig et mysterium. (ref.)
Insekter, Dr. Dacke forklarede, har specialiseret receptorer i deres øjne til påvisning polarisering. "Men i fugle og fisk og så videre, vi ikke rigtig har en anelse om, hvordan de er i stand til at opfatte denne form for lys," fortalte hun til BBC. (ref.)
Jeg havde ikke forventet dem at finde, at hos pattedyr, såsom i et bat. Så jeg troede, det var virkelig fascinerende.
The store udfordring vil faktisk være at finde den mekanisme, hvorved flagermus er i stand til at gøre dette. Der er stadig en smule for at afsløre før hele historien er kendt. " (ref.)

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